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adnate aestivation albumen alternate animals anthers apex appear axil axis bark base belong blossom bracts branches calyx capsule carbonic acid carpels cells cellular circle commonly compound consists corolla cotyledons cross-section dehiscence destitute developed dioecious distinct drupe ducts embryo enlarged Exogenous Family fertile filaments five fleshy floral envelopes flower foliage fruit furnished genera genus germination grow growth herbs imbricated inner juice kind layer leaf leaves lobes magnified matter monoecious nature nearly nourishment one-celled opposite ordinary organs ovary ovules oxygen parenchyma parietal peculiar perianth petals petiole pistil placenta plants plumule pollen portion produced raceme radicle receptacle roots seed sepals separate showing shrubs simple single soil sometimes species spiral sporangium spores stalk stamens stem stigma stipules structure styles Subord summit surface termed thickened tion trees tropical tube usually vegetable vernation Vertical section whole whorl wood woody tissue
Page 173 - ... bundles ; or the increased size of the coming leaf-bud will snap them ; or if these causes are not in operation, a gust of wind, a heavy shower, or even the simple weight of the lamina, will be enough to disrupt the small connexions, and send the suicidal member to its grave. " Such is the history of the fall of the leaf.
Page 339 - ... cellular Marchantia-like frond. The globular cell produces in its interior a number of minute vesicles, in each of which is developed a spiral filament, coiled up in the interior. At a certain epoch the globular cell bursts and discharges the vesicles, and the spiral filaments moving within the vesicles at length make their way out of them and swim about in the water, displaying a spiral or heliacal form, and consisting of a delicate filament with a thickened clavate extremity : this, the so-called...
Page 186 - The residue left by the combustion is commonly composed of salts — alkaline chlorides, with bases of potash and soda, earthy and metallic phosphates, caustic or carbonated lime and magnesia, silica, and oxides of iron and of manganese. Several other substances are also met with there, but in quantities so small that they may be neglected.
Page 201 - The needful compensation is therefore found in the vegetable kingdom. While animals consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic acid which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the principal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decomposed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living beings to each other; — each removing from the atmosphere what would be noxious to the other ; — each...
Page 175 - Sunflower three and a half feet high, with a surface of 5,616 square inches exposed to the air, was found to perspire at the rate of twenty to thirty ounces avoirdupois every twelve hours, or seventeen times more than a man.
Page 366 - ... or description of each group, when fully given, actually expresses all the known particulars in which the plants it embraces agree among themselves, and differ from other groups of the same rank. This complete analysis being carried through the system, from the primary divisions down to the species, it is evident that the study of a single plant of each group will give a correct (so far as it goes) and often- a sufficient idea of the structure, habits, and even the sensible properties of the...
Page 375 - Class I. — EXOGENOUS OR DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS. Stem consisting of a distinct bark and pith, which are separated by an interposed layer of woody fibre and vessels, forming wood in all perennial stems : increase in diameter effected by the annual deposition of new layers between the old wood and the bark, which are arranged in concentric zones (98- 121), and traversed by medullary rays.
Page 199 - Every six pounds of carbon in existing plants has withdrawn twenty-two pounds of carbonic acid gas from the atmosphere, and replaced it with sixteen pounds of oxygen gas, occupying the same bulk.
Page 366 - ... combine the subordinate groups into larger natural assemblages, and these into still more comprehensive divisions, so as to embrace the whole vegetable kingdom in a methodical arrangement. All the characters which plants present, that is, all the points of agreement or difference, are employed in their classification ; those which are common to the greatest number of plants being used for the primary grand divisions ; those less comprehensive for subordinate groups, &c. ; so that the character...
Page 135 - No. 2 ; another third of the circumference brings us to No. 3 ; another brings us round to a line with No. 1, exactly over which No. 4 is placed. No. 5 is in like manner over No. 2, and so on. They stand, therefore, in three vertical rows, one of which contains the numbers 1, 4, 7, 10 ; another, 2, 5, 8, 11 ; the third, 3, 6, 9, 12, and so on. If we draw a line from the insertion of one leaf to that of the next, and so on to the third, fourth, and the rest in succession, it will be perceived that...