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Anthracite; An Instance of Natural Resource Monopoly
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able actual American amount annual anthracite coal anthracite fields anthracite wages anthracite workers average basis capital carrying cent Central charges cite clothing coal companies combination Commission Company compared competition considerable consumer contract miners cost demand depend dividends earnings effective employed employees equal estimate expenses fact figures fixed freight give greater hands higher important income increase industry interests investment Jersey labor land Lehigh Valley less living means method miners mines monopoly natural resource operators organization owners ownership paid Pennsylvania period present profits purchase question railroad Reading reasonable received regarding relation represented result roads secure selling sizes social standard statement supply surplus things tion United vote wages workers yearly York
Página 59 - The vicepresident shall serve as a member of the Executive Committee and of the Board of Directors. In the event of...
Página 222 - No incorporated company doing the business of a common carrier shall, directly or indirectly, prosecute or engage in mining or manufacturing articles for transportation over its works ; nor shall such company, directly or indirectly, engage in any other business than that of common carriers, or hold or acquire lands, freehold or leasehold, directly or indirectly, except such as shall be necessary for carrying on its business ; but any mining or manufacturing company may carry the products of its...
Página 222 - The act of 8th April, 1881, (PL 9.) enacts "that where any conveyances of real estate in this commonwealth have...
Página 119 - A number of attempts to ascertain the cost of a decent standard of living have been based on the assumption that physical health, education up to the age of fourteen and the other minimum requirements of modern American life were included in the term "decency." There is a certain minimum of food, clothing, shelter and the other necessaries of life below which physical health and social decency are impossible. That minimum exists in terms of bread and butter, shoes, overcoats, medical attendance and...
Página 63 - June 30, 191.., in accordance with the foregoing specifications; the coal to be delivered in such quantities and at such times as the Government may direct.
Página 103 - ... insufficient to compensate the mine workers in view of the dangerous character of the occupation in relation to accidents, the liability to serious and permanent disease, the high death rate and the short trade life incident to this employment." The Commission found and reported that anthracite coal mining "should be classed as one of the dangerous industries of the country, ranking with several of the most dangerous.
Página 129 - A depreciation charge is one that is made against the wearing out of capital. A paper manufacturer buys a machine for which he pays $1,000. Experience tells him that this machine will wear out in ten years. Therefore the manufacturer sets aside each year a sum which at the end of ten years...
Página 128 - ... present wage scale, paid to workers by American industry, does not enable millions of them to give a family of three young children the simple decencies of life that are necessary to the maintenance of health and efficiency. IV. The American Wage as a Business Proposition The wages paid by American industry to a great body of its workers are inadequate to provide health, efficiency, and decency for a moderate-sized family. They are even more inadequate when .they are considered from the standpoint...
Página 103 - The statistics so far available (which appear in this report under " Hazardous nature of anthracite mining " a) do not show a greater hazard than obtains in some other occupations, notably in the fisheries and in those of switchmen and freight-train crews on our railroads. Still, the requirements are exacting, and this fact has been duly weighed by the Commission, in coming to a decision upon the demand for an increase in the rate of compensation of contract miners. Reviewing the whole case, and...
Página 148 - ... as can be ascertained, does not compare unfavorably with that in other industries requiring substantially equal skill and training. It is more instructive, of course, to compare annual earnings of the contract miner with the annual earnings of those employed in other occupations. We find that these annual earnings of contract miners, based upon returns for the year 1901, range between $550 and $600. Perhaps it would be safe to put the average at $560.