Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon
Evelyn L. Bull, Steven R. Peterson, Jack Ward Thomas, Pacific Northwest Research Station (Portland, Or.)
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1986 - Birds - 19 pages
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available dead trees bark beetles basal area best discriminator broken tops canopy closure carpenter ants cavity dead and downed Dead trees greater Diameter at breast Discriminant function analysis discriminator between dead Douglas-fir downed material feeding activity feeding sites fir forest types five stumps five woodpecker species foraging activities foraging sites Forest and Range forest types contained grand fir forest grand fir types greater than 50 ground cover habitat characteristics hairy and black-backed lodgepole pine logs moisture gradient mountain pine beetle nest sites contained nested in dead nests occurred partition Percent of bark phloem pileated woodpeckers pine forest types ponderosa pine forest ponderosa pine types preferred Raphael and White sapwood seven woodpecker species significant F-values slope gradients snags Stallcup standard deviation Starkey Experimental Forest study area three-fourths Three-toed woodpecker tree condition tree species University of Idaho variables western larch White-headed woodpecker Williamson's sapsuckers nested woodpeckers and northern yellow-bellied sapsuckers young fledged