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adnate aestivation albumen alternate animals anthers apex appear axil axis bark base belong blossom bracts branches calyx capsule carbonic acid carpels cells cellular circle commonly compound consists corolla cotyledons cross-section dehiscence destitute developed dioecious distinct drupe ducts embryo enlarged epidermis Exogenous Family fertile filaments five fleshy floral envelopes flower foliage fruit furnished genera genus germination grow growth herbs imbricated inner juice kind layer leaf leaves lobes magnified matter monoecious nature nearly nourishment one-celled opposite ordinary organs ovary ovules oxygen parenchyma parietal peculiar perianth petals petiole pistil placenta plants plumule pollen portion produced raceme radicle receptacle roots seed sepals separate showing shrubs simple single soil sometimes species spiral sporangium spores stalk stamens stem stigma stipules structure styles Subord summit surface termed thickened tion trees tropical tube usually vegetable Vertical section whole whorl wood woody tissue
Page 201 - The needful compensation is therefore found in the vegetable kingdom. While animals consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic acid which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the principal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decomposed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living beings to each other; — each removing from the atmosphere what would be noxious to the other ; — each...
Page 339 - ... kinds since discovered, regarding them as different stages of one structure. The announcement of this discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only in the Ferns but in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that the existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were not to be regarded as in any way connected with the reproductive processes. " But an essay...
Page 350 - Alga? exhibit, and that all these motions are arrested by narcotics or other poisons — the narcotic and acrid poisons even producing effects upon vegetables respectively analogous to their different effects upon the animal economy — we cannot avoid attributing to plants a vitality, and a power of making movements tending to a determinate end, not differing in nature, perhaps, from those of the lower Animals.
Page 173 - Monocotyledons separate from the stem and fall by means of an articulation at the junction with the stem, which begins to form early in the season and is completed at the close. There is a kind of disintegration of a transverse layer of cells, which cuts off the petiole by a regular line, and leaves a clean scar, such as is seen in Fig.
Page 173 - ... bundles ; or the increased size of the coming leaf-bud will snap them ; or if these causes are not in operation, a gust of wind, a heavy shower, or even the simple weight of the lamina, will be enough to disrupt the small connexions, and send the suicidal member to its grave. " Such is the history of the fall of the leaf.
Page 199 - Every six pounds of carbon in existing plants has withdrawn twenty-two pounds of carbonic acid gas from the atmosphere, and replaced it with sixteen pounds of oxygen gas, occupying the same bulk.
Page 366 - ... or description of each group, when fully given, actually expresses all the known particulars in which the plants it embraces agree among themselves, and differ from other groups of the same rank. This complete analysis being carried through the system, from the primary divisions down to the species, it is evident that the study of a single plant of each group will give a correct (so far as it goes) and often- a sufficient idea of the structure, habits, and even the sensible properties of the...
Page 225 - In the preceding chapter we have recognized the close analogy of flower-buds to leaf-buds, and consequently of flowers to branches, and of the leaves of the flower to ordinary leaves. The plant continues for a considerable time to produce buds which develope into branches. At length it produces buds which expand into blossoms. Is there an entirely new system introduced when flowers appear ? Are the blossoms formed upon such a different plan, that the general laws of vegetation, which have sufficed...
Page 513 - POLYGAMIA (nolvg, many, fafiog, marriage), where the stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers, and united in others, either on the same or two or three different plants.