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SECRET ORGANIZATIONS AND CHINESE
INDIRECT RULE TRIAD AND KONGSIS
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According activity agencies Appendix associations Blythe Cantonese century Chapter Chen China Chinese immigrants Chinese secret societies collected Colonial corrupt dialect direction discussion early early Straits Settlements employed established evidence example existence fact fight fought function Ghee Ghee Hin given Government Hakkas headman Hokkien Hsiao Hsin Hung important indirect initiated institutions interview kapitan kind known Kongsi larger society legitimate local societies located mainly major Malacca Malaya means membership monopolization names occupational officers operational organizational organizations origin patterns Penang Peninsular Malaysia period persons police political positions present protection recruitment refers relationship remained Report role rule secret society members Singapore social Source speech groups status Straits Settlements Street structure subscribers suggests Table temples Teochius territory tiger-generals tion town Triad underworld Wynne