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The medieval Islamic world
The Mongols in the West
The military heritage and impact of Crusading warfare
Abbasid Africa al-Andalus al-Din amir Anatolia appear Arab archers armour arms army arrows attack Ayyubid battle became Byzantine Caliphate called castle cavalry central certainly Christian clear clearly commander consisted continued Crusader cultural Damascus defence described dominated earlier early eastern effective Egypt eleventh century Úlite enemy equipment European example fact Fatimid followed forces fortifications frontier further groups hand horses important included infantry Iran Islamic world known Kurds late later least less major Mamluk Sultanate medieval Islamic Middle East military Mongol Muslims Nevertheless normally North northern officer origin passim perhaps period Persian probably ranks recruited referred regions remained result role rule rulers Saladin seems Seljuk ships siege significant similarly soldiers sometimes sources sword Syria tactics tenth term thirteenth century towers traditional tribal tribes troops Turkish Turks twelfth century unit usually wall warfare weapons Western