The Sac and Fox Indians

Front Cover
University of Oklahoma Press, 1958 - Social Science - 287 pages

Of all the aboriginal tribes of the Americas none had a more courageous or tragic destiny than the twin tribes of the Mississippi Valley, the Sacs and the Foxes.

Occupying a parkland area midway between the powerful Iroquois and Sioux tribes in present Illinois and Wisconsin, the Sacs and the Foxes were prosperous agrarian people who held their own against their more numerous neighbors. The white frontier moved threateningly closer, and in the War of 1812 the Sacs and the Foxes, resisting the Americans’ encroachment on their lands, joined forces with the British.

Black Hawk, the great Sac and Fox leader, refused to accept land cessions to the whites, and in 1832 the tribe’s worst fears came true: a group of white squatters claimed the site of Black Hawk’s village in Illinois. In the "war" that followed, Black Hawk and his force retreated before an overwhelming force of whites and were virtually wiped out in a battle at the mouth of the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin.

Pushed out onto the plains, the remnants of the tribes had to content with the dominant Comanches. Their destiny had been changed forever.


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The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi Valley
The Treaty of 1804
Discord and Distrust
War Comes to the West
Initial Disappointments and Successes
Redcoats and Redskins Defeat the Long Knives
Peace Comes to the Upper Mississippi
Postwar Problems
The Corn Treaty of 1831
Black Hawk Commits the British Band
Blood Flows on a Small Scale Tolerably Fast
Death on the Wisconsin and the Bad Axe
The Power to Dictate
Iowa Interlude
Aborted Acculturation in Kansas
The End of the Trail

The Sac and Fox Position Worsens
The Indians Leave Saukenuk

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About the author (1958)

William T. Hagan is retired Professor of History at the University of Oklahoma. His numerous books on American Indian subjects include The Sac and Fox Indians ; United States-Comanche Relations ; Quanah Parker, Comanche Chief ; and Theodore Roosevelt and Six Friends of the Indian , all published by the University of Oklahoma Press.

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