The Sac and Fox Indians

Front Cover
University of Oklahoma Press, 1958 - Social Science - 287 pages

Of all the aboriginal tribes of the Americas none had a more courageous or tragic destiny than the twin tribes of the Mississippi Valley, the Sacs and the Foxes.

Occupying a parkland area midway between the powerful Iroquois and Sioux tribes in present Illinois and Wisconsin, the Sacs and the Foxes were prosperous agrarian people who held their own against their more numerous neighbors. The white frontier moved threateningly closer, and in the War of 1812 the Sacs and the Foxes, resisting the Americans’ encroachment on their lands, joined forces with the British.

Black Hawk, the great Sac and Fox leader, refused to accept land cessions to the whites, and in 1832 the tribe’s worst fears came true: a group of white squatters claimed the site of Black Hawk’s village in Illinois. In the "war" that followed, Black Hawk and his force retreated before an overwhelming force of whites and were virtually wiped out in a battle at the mouth of the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin.

Pushed out onto the plains, the remnants of the tribes had to content with the dominant Comanches. Their destiny had been changed forever.

 

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Contents

The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi Valley
3
The Treaty of 1804
16
Discord and Distrust
26
War Comes to the West
37
Initial Disappointments and Successes
48
Redcoats and Redskins Defeat the Long Knives
60
Peace Comes to the Upper Mississippi
73
Postwar Problems
83
The Corn Treaty of 1831
123
Black Hawk Commits the British Band
141
Blood Flows on a Small Scale Tolerably Fast
157
Death on the Wisconsin and the Bad Axe
171
The Power to Dictate
192
Iowa Interlude
205
Aborted Acculturation in Kansas
225
The End of the Trail
245

The Sac and Fox Position Worsens
92
The Indians Leave Saukenuk
106

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About the author (1958)

William T. Hagan is retired Professor of History at the University of Oklahoma. His numerous books on American Indian subjects include The Sac and Fox Indians ; United States-Comanche Relations ; Quanah Parker, Comanche Chief ; and Theodore Roosevelt and Six Friends of the Indian , all published by the University of Oklahoma Press.

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