Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control

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Y. Elad, B. Williamson, Paul Tudzynski, Nafiz Delen
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 26, 2007 - Science - 428 pages
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Botrytis cinerea and other Botrytis species are important pathogens of nursery plants, vegetables, ornamental, field and orchard crops and stored and transported agricultural products. Over the last 125 years, Botrytis spp. have been investigated by an increasing number of specialists in diverse fields including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, genetics, morphology and histology, taxonomy, host-parasite interaction, ecology and epidemiology and they have been the subject of an immense number of published studies. Considerable effort is invested in protecting the agricultural produce against Botrytis before and after harvest. The market size for anti-Botrytis products is currently estimated at US$ 15-25 million in recent years. The intensity of anti-Botrytis measures taken by farmers continued unabated throughout the last 20 years but our understanding of the processes that govern Botrytis life cycles, pathogenicity and epidemiology have become comprehensive. During the compilation of this book the aim was to create a most comprehensive treatise on the rapidly developing science of Botrytis and to serve as a stimulus to future research for the benefit of agriculture and horticulture and all those who serve these industries; i.e. researchers and students, farm advisers and agriculture specialists.

The book is the result of intensive work of 43 authors, all of whom are leading scientists in the Botrytis sciences. Each chapter describes a particular aspect of fungal biology and its impact on disease processes and host response. New technologies have arisen that when applied to long-standing problems or to test new hypotheses have been most rewarding and many of these are covered in this book. The chapters are cross linked so that readers can follow associated material to better understand the practical implications of the advances made in fundamental science. The twenty inter-connected chapters of the book are grouped according to three major themes: the fungus and its pathogenicity factors; plant reactions to infection; and epidemiology and management of important Botrytis-incited diseases. This book adopts a multidisciplinary approach to integrate the state-of-the-art knowledge in all key areas of common interest in the fungi and their plant interactions. The book includes detailed reviews of Botrytis spp. and the diseases they cause in plant systems and provides a comprehensive description of these fungal necrotrophs, including their diversity of response to the environment, their speciation and relatedness, sources of variation for evolution and molecular genetics and genomics. Aspects of Botrytis-host interactions, pathogenicity factors, the plant's reactions to infection, morphology and cellular organization, signaling, key enzymes, reactive oxygen species and oxidative processes in disease on-set, secondary metabolites as plant defense substances and the role of phytohormones in such reactions are emphasized in the book. Several innovative approaches for disease management of this group of destructive pathogens and methods of detection, epidemiological studies and chemical and biological control are also discussed.

 

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Contents

Botrytis spp and Diseases They Cause in Agricultural Systems An Introduction
1
2 Geographical and ecological occurrence
2
3 Variability and adaptability
3
4 Quiescent restricted and aggressive infection
4
5 Molecular basis of hostparasite interactions
5
6 References
6
The Ecology of Botrytis on Plant Surfaces
9
2 Survival
10
2 Classical plating out method
182
3 Immunological methods
183
4 Nucleic acidbased methods
186
5 Other detection methods
189
6 Conclusions
190
7 References
191
Chemical Control of Botrytis and its Resistance to Chemical Fungicides
195
2 Fungicides affecting respiration
196

3 Inoculum production and dispersal
13
4 Growth on plant surfaces
16
5 Infection pathways on diverse plant organs
20
6 Conclusions
24
Taxonomy and Genetic Variation of Botrytis and Botryotinia
28
2 Taxonomy
30
3 Botrytis cinerea
33
4 Genetics of other species of Botrytis
46
5 The future
47
6 Acknowledgements
48
Approaches to Molecular Genetics and Genomics of Botrytis
53
2 Generation of transgenic Botrytis strains
54
3 Unbiased gene cloning systems
57
4 Perspectives
59
5 Acknowledgements
60
Morphology and Cellular Organisation in Botrytis Interactions with Plants
67
2 Cytology and ultrastructure of Botrytis
68
3 Imaging of infection
74
4 Host response
80
5 Conclusions
81
7 References
82
Signalling in Botrytis cinerea
85
2 G𝛼 subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins
86
3 cAMP signalling pathway
88
4 MAP kinase pathways
90
5 Genes of the Ras superfamily
91
6 Calcineurincyclophilin A signalling
92
8 Twocomponent signal transduction genes in Botrytis cinerea
93
10 Conclusions
94
Extracellular Enzymes and Metabolites Involved in Pathogenesis of Botrytis
99
2 Penetration of the host surface
100
3 Killing of host cells
102
4 Conversion of host tissue into fungal biomass
105
5 Other enzymes potentially involved in pathogenesis
110
6 Conclusions
112
7 Acknowledgements
113
Botrytis cinerea Perturbs Redox Processes as an Attack Strategy in Plants
119
2 Hydrogen peroxide and other AOS
121
3 Low molecular mass antioxidant molecules
122
4 Perturbation of free radical chemistry as a result of Botrytis infection
124
5 Production of oxalic acid
126
6 Dynamics of iron redox chemistry
127
7 Regulation of plant enzymes
128
8 Botrytisderived enzymes
130
9 Generation of lipid peroxidation products
131
10 Host signalling and programmed cell death
132
11 Fungusderived metabolites
135
13 Acknowledgements
136
Plant Defence Compounds Against Botrytis Infection
142
2 Antimicrobial secondary metabolites
144
3 Tolerance of Botrytis to antifungal metabolites
152
5 Pathogenesisrelated proteins
153
6 Conclusions
155
Phytohormones In BotrytisPlant Interactions
163
2 Biosynthesis of plant hormones by B cinerea
164
3 Effect of plant hormones on B cinerea and on disease development
168
4 Conclusions
175
6 References
176
Detection Quantification and Immunolocalisation of Botrytis species
180
3 Antimicrotubule fungicides
202
4 Fungicides affecting osmoregulation
203
5 Fungicides whose activity is reversed by methionine
208
6 Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors
211
7 Multidrug resistance in Botrytis cinerea and fungal transporters
214
8 Conclusions
216
9 References
217
Microbial Control of Botrytis spp
223
2 Biocontrol agents and their mechanisms of action
224
3 Commercial implementation
230
4 Conclusions
234
5 References
236
Epidemiology of Botrysis cinerea in Orchard and Vine Crops
243
2 Sources of primary inoculum for host infections
244
3 Flower to fruit infection pathways
246
4 The phenomenon of latency in B cinerea epidemiology
252
5 Factors predisposing host tissues to B cinerea
253
6 Effect of plant nutrition on B cinerea epidemics
255
7 Host management factors and B cinerea epidemics
257
8 Effect of growing system
260
9 Conclusions
261
10 Dedication
262
Botrytis Species in Bulb Crops
273
2 Botrytis species attacking onion
274
3 Botrytis species attacking flower bulbs
283
4 Conclusions
289
Biology and Management of Botrytis spp in Legume Crops
295
2 Chickpeas
296
3 Lentils
300
4 Faba beans
303
5 Other legume crops
307
6 Conclusions
310
7 References
311
Epidemiology of Botrytis cinerea Diseases in Greenhouses
319
2 Botrytis cinereaincited diseases in greenhouse crops
320
3 Factors that influence B cinereaincited epidemics in greenhouse crops
322
4 Damage relationships
330
6 References
331
Rational Management of BotrytisIncited Disease Integration of Control Measures and Use of Warning Systems
334
2 Reduction of fungicide use by optimal timing of spraying
336
3 Reduction of fungicide use by integration of chemical and nonchemical measures
340
4 Integration of chemical and nonchemical control measures guided by a warning system
342
5 Implementation of rational approaches for management of Botrytisincited diseases on a large scale
344
6 Conclusions
346
PostHarvest Botrytis Infection Etiology Development and Management
349
2 Etiology of postharvest botrytis rots
350
3 Botrytis on major crops
352
4 Conclusions and future prospects
361
5 Acknowledgment
362
Innovative Biological Approaces to Botrytis Suppression
368
2 Potential use of natural genetic resources for Botrytis resistance breeding
370
3 The promise of manipulating defence gene expression
371
The potential for gene discovery
377
5 Improvement of microbial control agents for better disease suppression
381
6 Acknowledgement
385
7 References
386
Index
393
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