Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600
Women brewed and sold most of the ale consumed in medieval England, but after 1350, men slowly took over the trade. By 1600, most brewers in London were male, and men also dominated the trade in many towns and villages. This book asks how, when, and why brewing ceased to be women's work and instead became a job for men. Employing a wide variety of sources and methods, Bennett vividly describes how brewsters (that is, female brewers) gradually left the trade. She also offers a compelling account of the endurance of patriarchy during this time of dramatic change.
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Alciston alebrewers alehouses alesellers aletasters alewife alewives Alice amercements assize assize presentments beer beerbrewers Black Death brewed for profit brewhouses Brewing by not-married brewing trade Brigstock by-industrial brewers Cambridge cannemol chapter cheating Chester cited CLRO commercial brewing cost cucking-stool customers Denise Marlere drink early fourteenth century English example female fifteenth gallons gild grain Hindolveston hops householder-focused households husbands individual-focused industry Ingatestone Joan Kibworth Harcourt labor late fourteenth century late medieval later middle ages Leets Leicester less livery London Long-term licenses Lullington male brewers malt manor manorial married brewsters married couples married women Maryanne Kowaleski misogyny Norwich Norwich Leets not-married brewsters not-married women Oxford patriarchy percent Piers Plowman produced Record Office regulation rural selected courts selling servants singlewomen and widows sixteenth century social Society sold Southampton status supervision Tamworth tapsters tipplers towns urban victualers villages wife wives woman women brewed Woolhope York
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