Guidelines for postrelease mitigation technology in the chemical process industry
Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1997 - Technology & Engineering - 175 pages
This book puts together a body of very recent information never before presented in one volume on the design of post-release mitigation systems. The development of a fundamental knowledge base on post-release mitigation systems, through testing and data correlation, is very new. While further research and development is needed, this practical work offers guidance on putting post-release countermeasures to work now. The book presents current engineering methods for minimizing the consequences of the release of toxic vapors, or ignition of flammable vapors, including passive and active systems intended to reduce or eliminate significant acute effects of a dispersing vapor cloud in the plant facility, or into the surrounding community. As in all CCPS works, the book emphasizes planning and a systems approach, shows limitations of any methods discussed, and provides numerous references so that the reader may continue to learn.
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Introduction to Postrelease Mitigation
Overview of Release Scenarios
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accidental release acid American Institute anhydrous ammonia atmosphere BLEVE Blewitt carbon disulfide CCPS Center Center for Chemical Chemical Engineers Chemical Process Safety concentration consequences containment Deflagrations detection detectors diameter dike dilution Dispersion Models droplet effective emergency response plan enclosure energy ensure equation equipment evaluated evaporation rate example explosion facility Figure fire flammable limit flammable materials flow rate fluid foam Fthenakis gases Guidelines for Vapor hazard zone hazardous material Heskestad HVAC hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen Fluoride ignition impact Institute of Chemical leak liquid pool located Loss Prevention Melhem meteorological conditions mitigation systems mitigation techniques n-pentane operation overpressure personnel pipe postrelease mitigation measure potential pressure Process Safety Management ratio reaction reduce refrigerated removal efficiency result risk sample sensors sorbent steam curtain surface area temperature thermal thermal radiation toxic toxic materials unmitigated vapor barriers vapor box vapor cloud vapor fence velocity vessel water spray wind speed