Preparing for climate change
Argues that we need to start adapting to climate change, now and that these efforts should focus primarily on identifying the places and people most at risk and taking anticipatory action - from developing drought-resistant crops to building sea walls. Roundly rejects the idea that reactive, unplanned adaptation will solve our problems; that species will migrate northward as climates warm, and farmers will shift to new crops and more hospitable locations and is highly critical of 'geoengineering' schemes that are designed to cool the planet by such methods as injecting iron into oceans or exploding volcanoes. Insists that smart adaptation will require a series of local and regional projects, many of them in the countries least able to pay for them and least responsible for the problem itself. Ensuring that we address the needs of these countries, while we work globally to reduce emissions over the long term, is our best chance to avert global disaster and to reduce the terrible, unfair burdens that are likely to accompany global warming.
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adaptive capacity aerosols Anticipatory adaptation beneﬁts Boston Review Book bottom-up C/range Cambridge carbon dioxide century challenge climate change climate impacts climate policy climate risks climate science climate system coastal conﬂicting decades Decision-makers developed countries difﬁcult Earth’s surface effects emissions of greenhouse emitted environmental exposure extreme events ﬁnancial ﬁrst ﬂood fossil fuels Fourth Assessment Report funds future climate change Geoengineering glaciers greenhouse effect greenhouse gases greenhouse-gas emissions grid-box heat waves high conﬁdence house-gas human activities ice sheets impacts of climate increase inﬂuence infrared IPCC AR4 KERRY EMANUEL Marrakech Mastrandrea mate change melting mini-lateral mitigation and adaptation models outcomes Post-normal science PREPARING FOR CLIMATE projections radiation radiative forcing range reduce emissions reﬂect regions rise scenarios Science and Policy scientiﬁc research scientists sea ice sea level—rise sectors sensitivity signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly species speciﬁc stakeholders Stephen H strategies sub-grid-scale tion tive top-down trajectory ture uncertainty vulnerability assessment vulnerability thresholds