## The Human Being as a Logical ThinkerThe aim of this book is to explain human rationality. The fundamental principles of human thought are stated in terms of Balzer's Principles, and their operations in everyday life are illustrated. The natural numbers are defined and explained in a fresh fashion. Paradoxes, including those of class theory and material implication, which have signaled that all is not well in our logical systems, are laid to rest here. The explanation of human rationality has more than logical interest, for it touches upon the human values embedded in our rationality. The book carries the message that all human beings are fundamentally equal. |

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### Contents

3 | |

5 | |

7 | |

ONE The Fundamental Principles of Human Thought Section 1 Classification | 27 |

Classes | 31 |

Truth and Falsity | 35 |

Quantifiers | 43 |

SubClasses | 45 |

The Paradoxes of Implication | 75 |

THREE Arithmetic Section 12 The Natural Numbers | 79 |

The Logic of Arithmetic | 89 |

FOUR Formal Logic Section 14 The Development of Logic in Western Culture | 101 |

Section IS Class Symbols and Existence | 115 |

Sense Reference and Existence | 121 |

Some Further Observations | 125 |

FIVE The Other Animals Section 18 Cleverness in Animals | 129 |

The External World | 49 |

The Self | 53 |

Identity | 57 |

The Human Being as a Logical Thinker | 61 |

TWO Paradoxes Section 10 The Paradoxes of Classes | 65 |

Conclusion | 137 |

End Notes | 141 |

145 | |

147 | |

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