Comparison of an Eight-hour Plant and a Ten-hour Plant

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1920 - Fatigue - 213 pages
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Page 97 - ... tradition of slowed labor must necessarily have arisen, probably in large part automatically, as a kind of physiological self-protection. Without some conscious or unconscious slackening of effort indeed during working hours of improper length in the past, the output might have been even more unfavorable than it is known to have been for the hours of work consumed.
Page 103 - The importance of fatigue in the causation of accidents is emphasized by the fact that a higher accident risk accompanies the deeper decline of working capacity — (1) In the second spell as compared with the first; (2) In muscular work as compared with dexterous and machine work; (3) At the 10-hour plant as compared with the 8-hour plant.
Page 99 - That such increase of speed during part or all of the work period is the general practice is common opinion. . . . It is evident that in the interrelation of influences acting upon the situation now one and now another may be dominant. The most constant factor will be fatigue. It will be present in varying proportion in every case. It may act with the tendency to increase speed to produce a greater number of accidents. It may in the end become so pronounced that speed is reduced and the accident...
Page 97 - In so far as hours of work in excess of those suitable for maximal efficiency have been imposed during the last two or three generations of modern industry upon the workers, a tradition of slowed labor must necessarily have arisen, probably in large part automatically, as a kind of physiological self -protection.
Page 119 - ... the curve of accidents will be of the same general form as that of output, but steeper. This variation is roughly illustrated in certain types of work by the rise of accidents with rising output in the earlier hours of the day. During these hours the increase of injuries is to a considerable extent automatically determined by the added number of motions with the attendant exposure to danger, or by the generally increased risk inherent in more highly speeded machinery. Similarly, with lowered...
Page 120 - In the final hours of the day accidents fall with the deeper fall of output. In the absence of fatigue, this decline of accidents should be, as we have seen, proportionate to the decline of output, owing to lessened exposure. But the counterinfluence of fatigue breaks up this correspondence. By tending to increase accidents it checks their automatic decline. So much greater, therefore, is the fall of output than the fall of accidents that accident risk still ascends.
Page 103 - Under the eight-hour system output varies more nearly according to individual capacity. 4. Industrial accidents — (a) In the absence of fatigue, accidents vary directly with speed of production owing to increased exposure to risk. (b) The breaking up of this regular variation by fatigue is indicated by — (1) The rise of accidents with the fall of output; (2) The disproportionate rise of accidents with the rise of output and the absence of a proportionate fall of accidents with the fall of output...
Page 166 - Fayette R. Plumb (Inc.); president Philadelphia Association for the Discussion of Employment Problems.
Page 87 - Avhere the output is capable of uniform measurement. It is particularly noticeable in the fuse-making rooms, the primer house, and the blanking room. So widespread, indeed, is its influence that operations at the factory should perhaps be classed as more or less stereotyped rather than as stereotyped and non-stereotyped. Care was taken in the investigation, however, not to include in the general studies of output those processes in which production was to any marked degree thus limited.
Page 29 - SYSTEMS AS IN OPERATION AT THE Two PLANTS STUDIED. A comparison of the 8-hour and 10-hour systems leads to the conclusion that the 8-hour system is the more efficient. This is evidenced by — 1. Maintenance of output. — The day shift : The outstanding feature of the 8hour system is steady maintenance of output. The outstanding feature of the 10hour system is the decline of output. 2. Lost time. — Under the...