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145 degrees Fahrenheit ammonia amount of lecithin Bact bacteria brine cent Chem chemical decomposition chloride choline churning cold storage copper cream butter cream pasteurized Cusick Dairy decomposition of lecithin determined development of fishinese development of ﬁshiness distilled ealt favor the development ferrous lactate fiehineee fiehy ﬁshiness in butter fishiness in storage fishy butter fishy flavor flavor in butter formaldehyde fruity Hunziker hydrogen peroxide hydrolysis hydrolyzed lecithin I I I I I I Ichthyosmius inoculated iron lactic acid lecithin content lecithin emulsion McKay mercuric chloride metallic method methylamine milk moldy neurine neutralized nitrous acid odor oidium oidium lactis oily Oily Olly organisms overworking oxidation pasteurization at 145 pasteurized pasteurized cream peroxide Physiol present produce ripened cream salt solution sour cream starter storage butter Supplee Supplee 52 sweet cream Table tallowy tertiary amine thie titrated trimethylamine unhydrolyzed unpasteurized unsalted butter unsalted samples vidi
Page xxiv - In the opinion of the writer, fishy flavor is caused by a slow, spontaneous, chemical change to which acid is essential and which is favored by the presence of small amounts of oxygen.
Page 42 - Butter made from cream to which lecithin had been artificially added became fishy more readily than the untreated butter made from the same lot of cream. 5. Lact. ichthyosmius and another organism that had been isolated from fishy cream produced trimethylamine from lecithin under favourable conditions, but failed entirely to grow in the presence of salt and acid in concentrations such as would be found in the brine of butter. With the additional inhibiting effect of low temperature in storage, it...
Page xlvi - The extent of this chemical change is directly proportional to the quantity of acid present in the cream from which the butter was prepared.
Page 20 - The results of these experiments, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, demonstrate that lecithin will undergo decomposition and yield trimethylamine under conditions that exclude bacterial action. This decomposition took place to the greatest extent under conditions that combine salt, high acid, and oxidation, the very same factors that favor the development of fishiness in butter. Thus these results lend support to the theory that the fishy flavor is due to chemical decomposition of lecithin into trimethylamine.
Page 49 - Animal Husbandry JA JAMES, In charge of Agr. Education J. JOHNSON, Horticulture ER JONES, In charge of Agr. Engineering LR JONES, In charge of Plant Pathology GW KEITT, Plant Pathology F. KLEINHEINZ, Animal Husbandry JH KOLB, Economics BD LEITH, Agronomy T.