Rock Quality, Seismic Velocity, Attenuation and Anisotropy
CRC Press, Nov 3, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 729 pages
Seismic measurements take many forms, and appear to have a universal role in the Earth Sciences. They are the means for most easily and economically interpreting what lies beneath the visible surface. There are huge economic rewards and losses to be made when interpreting the shallow crust or subsurface more, or less accurately, as the case may be.
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anisotropy aperture appears assumed attenuation authors average Barton behaviour block borehole caused changes Chapter close compared compliance correlation cracks crust deep deformation density dependence depth developed direction dynamic earthquake effective stress effects engineering estimated et al example fault field flow fluid fractures frequency Geophysics give given higher important increase indicated interpretation joint laboratory layer less levels loading logging lower magnitude matrix mean measurements mechanics method modulus normal Note occur P-wave P-wave velocity parallel permeability pore porosity possible pressure properties Q-value range ratio recorded reduced relation relative reservoir rock mass rock quality roughness samples sandstone saturation scale seen seismic Q seismic refraction seismic velocity sets shale shallow shear wave shear-wave shown in Figure splitting stiffness strength stress structure studies suggested surface Table tests tion trends tunnel values vertical zone