## Photons and Atoms: Introduction to Quantum ElectrodynamicsPhotons and Atoms Photons and Atoms: Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics provides the necessary background to understand the various physical processes associated with photon-atom interactions. It starts with elementary quantum theory and classical electrodynamics and progresses to more advanced approaches. A critical comparison is made between these different, although equivalent, formulations of quantum electrodynamics. Using this format, the reader is offered a gradual, yet flexible introduction to quantum electrodynamics, avoiding formal discussions and excessive shortcuts. Complementing each chapter are numerous examples and exercises that can be used independently from the rest of the book to extend each chapter in many disciplines depending on the interests and needs of the reader. |

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### Contents

THE FUNDAMENTAL | 5 |

B Electrodynamics in Reciprocal Space | 11 |

Normal Variables | 23 |

Copyright | |

51 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

analogous angular momentum anticommutation appears associated atom calculation canonical quantization Chapter classical commutation relations Complement components conjugate momentum Consider coordinates corresponding Coulomb gauge coupled covariant degrees of freedom derivative described Dirac field discrete dynamical variables eigenstates eigenvalues electric field electromagnetic field electron equal equation of motion equivalent evolution Exercise expansion expression external field Finally Fourier transform free field given gives gotten Heisenberg integral interaction Hamiltonian introduce Lagrange equations Lagrangian density last term linear longitudinal Lorentz gauge magnetic field matrix elements Maxwell's equations mean value modes momenta normal variables particles photons physical variables polarization polarization density possible quantum electrodynamics real space reciprocal space relativistic replace representation respect result scalar photons scalar potential second term spatial standard Lagrangian subsidiary condition system of charges tion transition amplitude transverse field two-photon unitary transformation vacuum vector potential velocity wave function written zero