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able absolutely Adam Smith agriculture appear argument arising benevolence cause cheap soups checks to population claim of right classes of society common consequently considered constant degree demand dependent poverty difficulty diminishing doubt earth effects encourage England essay Europe evils exer exist famines give Godwin greater number increase of population industry land lation law of chastity laws of nature live Long Newnton lower classes mankind marriage marry means of subsistence millions misery and vice moral restraint necessarily necessary object observed operation oscillation parish passion perhaps period plenty poor poor-laws popu positive checks potatoes power of population powerful instinct present prevail preventive check price of labour price of provisions principle of population probably proportion propositions prospect putrid offals quantity of food ratio of increase reason repressed rich scarcity seems severe distress shillings sufficient suppose tend tendency tion truth twenty-five undoubtedly vice and misery virtue whole
Page 91 - contribute to shorten the natural duration of human life. Under this head therefore may be enumerated, all unwholesome occupations, severe labour and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, great towns, excesses of all kinds, the whole train of common diseases and epidemics, wars, pestilence, plague, and famine.
Page 92 - 1 [It will be observed, that I here use the term moral in its most confined sense. By moral restraint I would be understood to mean a restraint from marriage from prudential motives, with a conduct strictly moral during the period of this restraint; and I have never intentionally deviated from this sense. When I have
Page 63 - land appropriated to it, could not then demand a part of the surplus produce of others, as a debt of justice. It has appeared, that from the inevitable laws of our nature, some human beings must suffer from want. These are the unhappy persons who, in the great lottery of life, have drawn a blank. The
Page 34 - to save, among the common people, and thus to weaken / one of the strongest incentives to sobriety and industry, and / consequently to happiness. It is a general complaint among master manufacturers, \> that high wages ruin all their workmen ; but it is difficult /? to conceive that these men would not save a part
Page 97 - will be considerably greater ; and these causes will probably continue their operation till the population is sunk below the level of the food; and then the return to comparative plenty will again produce an increase, and, after a certain period, its further progress will again be checked by the same causes.
Page 91 - plague, and famine. On examining these obstacles to the increase of population which are classed under the heads of preventive and positive checks, it will appear that they are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery. Of the preventive checks, that which is not followed by irregular
Page 98 - The checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery. It
Page 103 - considerations show that the virtue of chastity is not, as some have supposed, a forced produce of artificial society; but that it has the most real and solid foundation in nature and reason; being apparently the only virtuous means of avoiding the vice and misery which result so often from the principle of population.
Page 40 - To these two great checks to population, in all long occupied countries, which I have called the preventive and the positive checks, may be added vicious customs with respect to women, great cities, unwholesome manufactures, luxury, pestilence, and war. All these checks may be fairly resolved into -misery and vice. And that these are the
Page 56 - in a few bosoms, makes some faint expiring struggles, till at length self-love resumes his wonted empire, and lords it triumphant over the world. No human institutions here existed, to the perverseness of which Mr. Godwin ascribes the original sin of the worst men.* No opposition had been produced by them between public and private good. No monopoly