An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Part 1330
Every age has its own geography, separate and distinct from the geographies of earlier and succeeding ages. This 1973 book seeks to examine the complex of natural and man-made features which have provided the background of history, influencing its course and themselves modified by human action. Professor Pounds examines five short periods, each of which is not only relatively well documented, but also important in the climax of a civilisation. In a sense, each represents the climax of a longer period of historical development. The aim is to survey the whole of Europe for each of the chosen periods, not merely those areas which have been highlighted by documents and events. Northern Europe in the age of Pericles and eastern Europe in all periods are, for example, examined, alongside the better-known Mediterranean region, France and the Rhineland. Considerable use is made of maps, all specially prepared for this book.
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Europe in the midfifth century B C
Europe in the age of the Antonines
Europe in the age of Charlemagne
Europe about the year 1100
Europe in the early fourteenth century
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Aegean agricultural Alps appear areas Athens Balkan Baltic barley basin Black Sea boundary Byzantine Empire Celtic Celts central Europe centres century B.C. cities classical cloth coast commerce Constantinople continued crops cultivated culture Danube density developed early east eastern economic emperors established Etruscan evidence export extended farming fifth century Flanders forest fourteenth century frontier Gaul German grain Greece Greek hearths Hist important industry Iron Age Italian Italy land later less long-distance trade Low Countries manufacture medieval Mediterranean merchants Middle Ages monasteries monastic mountains north-western Europe northern Europe oats organisation Paris pattern peasant Peloponnese peninsula period plain plough Poland poleis political polyptyques population ports probably production provinces region Rhine Rhineland river Roman Empire Rome routes rural salt Scandinavia settled settlement Sicily Slavs soil southern Italy Spain square kilometre territory Thrace towns transhumant tribes urban valley villages walls western Europe wheat wine wool