An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330
Every age has its own geography, separate and distinct from the geographies of earlier and succeeding ages. This 1973 book seeks to examine the complex of natural and man-made features which have provided the background of history, influencing its course and themselves modified by human action. Professor Pounds examines five short periods, each of which is not only relatively well documented, but also important in the climax of a civilisation. In a sense, each represents the climax of a longer period of historical development. The aim is to survey the whole of Europe for each of the chosen periods, not merely those areas which have been highlighted by documents and events. Northern Europe in the age of Pericles and eastern Europe in all periods are, for example, examined, alongside the better-known Mediterranean region, France and the Rhineland. Considerable use is made of maps, all specially prepared for this book.
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Ages agricultural Alps animals appear areas Athens became boundary building built Byzantine central central Europe centres century cities classical cloth coast commerce communities continued Countries crops cultivated culture Danube density developed early east eastern economic Empire established estimate Europe evidence extended fact farming fields Flanders forest fourteenth France German grain Greece Greek groups hand Hist History houses important increasing industry iron Italian Italy king known land larger later least less limits lived lower manufacture medieval Mediterranean merchants Middle Ages monasteries mountains movement northern origin Paris passes pattern peasant peninsula perhaps period plain Poland political population ports possible probably production provinces region relatively remained Rhine river roads Roman Rome routes rural settled settlement ships Slavs soil southern Spain suggests supply towns trade urban valley villages walls western wine