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angle arch assumed beam bridge cast iron centre column compression considered counter-braces cubic foot dead load depth diagonals diameter directly dome end braces equal weights exceed factor of safety feet formula gives hence inclined pieces joints king-post live load load extends lower chord main braces main rafters main trusses material maximum deflection maximum strain maximum stress middle minimum modulus n-th bay number of bays one-half origin of moments panel system parabola perpendicular posts pounds pressure principle of moments rectangular resist rods roof secondary truss shown in Fig side span square foot square inch strains due struts supported chord Suppose sustain take the origin tang tec 9 tension tie-braces tons total load transverse shearing stress triangular truss Truss Bridges uniform load uniformly distributed upper chord vertical shearing stress whole length wind wrought iron zero
Page 241 - If three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the three sides of a triangle taken in order.
Page 29 - To the otner, those combinations which exert no lateral pressure upon the points of support, and in which the roadway, &c., may be said to be suspended from the bridge-frame. 606. Definitions of some of the terms employed in bridge nomenclature. A Chord is the upper or lower member in a truss. It extends from end to end of the structure. There are usually two chords, an upper and a lower chord. These may be parallel, as in Figs. 157 and 167, or the upper one may be curved (arched) and the lower one...
Page 241 - If three forces, acting at a point, be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a triangle taken in order, they will be in equilibrium.
Page 177 - Bi the reaction at the point of support Ai. This is the equation of a parabola whose axis is vertical and whose vertex is over the middle of the truss. Remark. — The usual method of computing the strains upon the pieces of a truss is that of adding and subtracting for each consecutive piece, as shown in the previous methods for calculating strains. General formulas are used in connection with these methods...
Page 30 - Pig. 151. \CHORO distinction is quite unnecessary in an analytical point of view, as will be seen hereafter, but it is so common in practice that it will not do to ignore it. A Main-Brace is a brace which inclines from the end of a truss towards the centre, as in Fig. 151. A Counter -Brace is one which inclines from the centre and towards the ends.
Page 198 - ... broke under a strain of 42 Ibs. per square foot, whilst a tornado was passing near by. During the severest gale on record at Liverpool, England, there was a pressure of 42 Ibs. per square foot directly upon a flat surface. During a very violent gale in Scotland, a wind-gauge once indicated 45 Ibs. per square foot. Buildings which are more or less protected will not be subjected to such pressures. Although there are high winds at Ann Arbor, yet no such gales as those mentioned above have ever...
Page 26 - If the length of the column is less than that given in the table, and more than four or five times its diameter, the strength is found by the following formula...
Page 73 - ... the load on the footing. The purpose of the ribs and base is to resist the tendency to break, due to this uniformly distributed load on the footing. Failure would generally occur through the bending action of the portion of the base projecting beyond the box. The moment on this may be figured as for a beam fixed at one end and free at the other and loaded uniformly with the load per unit of bearing surface. Taking one rib and the base half way on each side between the next rib would give a section...
Page 154 - ... tons, notwithstanding that the head had less metal in it than before. Further experiments, subsequently made, indicated that the diameter of the pins might have been still more increased with advantage, the best proportions appearing to be those which gave each pin an area of semi-cylindrical bearing surface about equal to the least sectional area of the links. Sir Charles Fox considers that it is best to make the bearing surface slightly in excess of the proportion just mentioned, and he thus...
Page 197 - Some say that snow is equivalent to from -jJj,- to -J- of its depth in water, while others say that it may be equivalent to J its depth of water. European engineers consider that six Ibs. per square foot is sufficient for snow, and eight Ibs. for the pressure of the wind, making fourteen Ibs. fo,r both. Trautwine says that not less than twenty...