The Citizen Factory: Schooling and Cultural Production in Bolivia

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SUNY Press, Jan 1, 1999 - Education - 399 pages
This vivid ethnography of Bolivian students explores the challenges they confront as they try to maintain their indigenous identity. In examining how the concrete practices of schooling shape student identities, this book looks at how the discourses and texts produced by students themselves are appropriated toward this end, and how students mobilize their own cultural resources to contest this process, critiquing and subtly transforming the agenda of state-run education. These issues are addressed as they are played out in the lives of young Native South Americans (Aymaras) studying to become rural schoolteachers in Bolivia, the poorest and most "indigenous" of all Latin American countries. It is a vivid ethnographic account of how these students confront the assaults which their professional training wages against their indigenous identity, as they alternately absorb and contest the ethnic, class, and gender images meant to transform them from "Aymara Indians" into "Bolivian citizens."
 

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Contents

ETHNICITY AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF NATIONHOOD
1
Urban Aymaras in La Paz
10
Popular Culture and The Language Problem
12
Obstacles to the Construction of a Unified and Unifying Bolivian Nationalism
18
Race and Class in the Nationalist Project
22
Public Tropes of Ethnic and International Conflict
27
Defining Lo Boliviano against a Hostile World
35
RURAL SCHOOLING IN BOLIVIA
41
Frozen Images and Structured Silences
158
Rural Education and the RaceClass Intersection
167
COMMODIFIED LANGUAGE AND ALIENATED EXCHANGE IN THE NORMAL SCHOOL
171
Schoolwork as Alienated Labor
193
STUDENT RESISTANCE TO COMMODIFICATION AND ALIENATION SILENCE SATIRE AND THE ACADEMIC BLACK MARKET
217
Student Resistance through Expressive Practices
263
AN ALTERNATIVE Vision NOTES TOWARD A TRANSFORMATIVE BOLIVIAN PEDAGOGY
293
Socialization and the Multiple Subject
295

Government Takes up the Reins
47
Teachers and Rural Communities
52
On the Threshold of Reform
55
STUDENT LIFE AT THE NORMAL SCHOOL
65
Students as Regulated Subjects
76
Dormitory Life
107
CURRICULUM AND IDENTITY
123
The Citizen in the Nation the Nation in the World
128
The Ambiguous Class Identity of Bolivian Teachers
137
Solidarity and Social Distance
141
Uneasy Positionings on the Field of Raceor We Have Met El Hermano Campesino and He Is not? Us
145
Political Practice and Popular Culture
298
Hegemonic Subject Positions as Alienated Use Values
301
Building a Democratic Pedagogy
305
Schooling as Cultural Critique
311
Directions for Future Research
314
Structural Pessimism vs Strategic Optimism
317
INTERVIEWED STUDENTS
321
NOTES
331
BIBLIOGRAPHY
363
INDEX
379
Copyright

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About the author (1999)

Aurolyn Luykx teaches in the Linguistic and in the Pedagogy departments at the Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Cochabamba, Bolivia.

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