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VICTORIES BEYOND THE ARABIAN FRONTIER
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Abū accounts al-Baladhurī al-Hira al-Tabarī allies Anatolia appears Arab Arabia areas army attack authority Bakr Banū base battle became bedouin Byzantine caliph campaign cavalry century columns command concerning conquest consider contingents Damascus defeated defensive deployed developments early east Egypt enemy engaged established Euphrates evidence expedition fact fighting forces formed frontier further garrison held included indicates infantry influence Iraq Islamic joined Khalid Khalid ibn known land later leaders marched Meanwhile Mecca Medina mention military moved Muhammad Muslims names notes numbers operations ordered original perhaps Persian position Press probably Prophet raiding recorded regarding reinforcements remained returned River Roman route Sassanid Sayf secure seems sent served siege situation sources South South Arabia strength suggests Syria territory tion took town tradition tribal tribes troops Umar units various victory warfare withdrew