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LIST OF MAPS
Geographic and Political Features
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Abu Ubayda accounts al-Baladhuri al-Tabari allies Anatolia appears Arab Arabia areas army attack authority Bakr Banu base battle became bedouin Byzantine caliph campaign cavalry century columns command conquest contingents Damascus defeated defensive deployed developments early east Egypt enemy engaged established Euphrates evidence expedition fact fighting forces formed frontier further garrison held included indicates infantry influence Iraq Islamic Iyad joined Khalid Khalid ibn known land later leaders marched Meanwhile Mecca Medina mention military moved Mu'awiya Muhammad Muslims notes numbers operations ordered perhaps Persian position Press probably Prophet raiding recorded regarding region reinforcements remained returned Roman route Sassanid Sayf seems sent served siege situation sources South South Arabia strength suggests Syria tion took town tradition tribal tribes troops Umar units various victory warfare withdrew