## ParadoxesThis book, provides a critical approach to all major logical paradoxes: from ancient to contemporary ones. There are four key aims of the book: 1. Providing systematic and historical survey of different approaches – solutions of the most prominent paradoxes discussed in the logical and philosophical literature. 2. Introducing original solutions of major paradoxes like: Liar paradox, Protagoras paradox, an unexpected examination paradox, stone paradox, crocodile, Newcomb paradox. 3. Explaining the far-reaching significance of paradoxes of vagueness and change for philosophy and ontology. 4. Proposing a novel, well justified and, as it seems, natural classification of paradoxes. |

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### Contents

2 | |

5 | |

3 Paradoxes of Ambiguity | 37 |

4 Paradoxes of SelfReference | 75 |

5 Ontological Paradoxes | 131 |

189 | |

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accept according Ajdukiewicz analysis analyzed argument Aristotle assumption character child back classical logic concept conclusion conjunction Consequently construction context contradiction create a stone crocodile Crocodile’s defined definition dialetheism dilemma equipollent error Euathlos existence fact falsehood falsity formal give the child God’s omnipotence grains intuitive larger circle Lenzen Let us assume Liar Antinomy Liar Paradox liar sentence liar’s lift logical conjunction logical value mathematical mathematical induction means Moreover motion natural language natural number Newcomb’s object omnipotent ontological paradoxes opinion Ot+Zb paradoxes of vagueness penumbra philosophical possible postulate precise boundary precisification predicate presented principle problem proposal Protagoras question reasoning respect result Richard number Richard’s Antinomy Sainsbury self-reference semantic sense sentence calculus sentence I know sequence set of horses set theory solution Sorensen sorites Springer Science+Business Media supervaluation Swinburne Tarski true proposition true sentence truth of sentence Unger utterance vague predicate verdict Williamson words