Natural Woodland: Ecology and Conservation in Northern Temperate Regions

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Mar 28, 1996 - Nature - 522 pages
An appreciation of the natural processes of woodlands is essential for the development of a rationale and practices for woodland nature conservation and management. In this book, Dr. Peterken describes how woodlands grow, die, and regenerate in the absence of human influence, and the structures and range of habitats found in natural woods. He describes examples of virgin and old-growth forests in Europe and North America, and outlines the dynamics and structure of natural temperate woodlands. This knowledge is then applied to nature conservation issues in British woods and forests, particularly the maintenance of "untouched" reserves, the management of native broadleaved woods, and the design of coniferous plantations. Natural Woodlands is a fascinating account of woodland natural history for all those concerned with the management and ecology of natural or commercial woodlands.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

WOODLAND NATURE AND HISTORY A PERSONAL INTRODUCTION
7
11 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL WOODLAND
7
12 HISTORY AS AN ELEMENT IN WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
7
13 LIMITATIONS OF THE HISTORICAL APPROACH
7
14 AIMS OF THIS BOOK
7
15 A DEDICATION
8
DEFINITIONS VALUES AND PHILOSOPHIES
10
21 THE CONCEPT OF NATURALNESS
11
114 A FRAMEWORK FOR WILDLIFE RESPONSES
266
115 RESPONSES OF ORIGINAL FOREST INVERTEBRATES
267
116 REDISTRIBUTION OF THE INVERTEBRATES OF OPEN SPACES
269
117 CHANGES IN RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS
270
118 GENERAL CHANGES IN THE FLORA
271
119 RELICT DISTRIBUTIONS OF PLANT SPECIES
272
1110 ENTRY OF SPECIES FROM THE MATRIX INTO REMNANT FORESTS
274
1111 CHANGES IN DIVERSITY
276

22 DEFINITIONS OF NATURAL WOODLAND
12
23 DEFINITIONS OF RELATED TERMS
15
24 THE SCIENTIFIC VALUES OF NATURAL WOODLAND
19
25 THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NATURAL WOODLAND
23
26 HISTORICAL ROOTS OF NATURE CONSERVATION
27
27 FORESTERS AND NATURE CONSERVATIONISTS
29
NATURAL WOODLAND IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
33
31 FOREST TYPES IN EUROPE
34
32 VIRGIN FOREST REMNANTS IN EUROPE
37
33 ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF EUROPEAN VIRGIN FORESTS
42
34 FOREST TYPES IN NORTH AMERICA
45
35 DESTRUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF OLDGROWTH IN NORTH AMERICA
48
36 INDIAN INFLUENCES ON NORTH AMERICAN OLDGROWTH
51
37 CONCLUSIONS
52
TEMPERATE AND BOREAL NATURAL FORESTS
55
SELECTED VIRGIN FORESTS
57
41 PISGAH FOREST NEW HAMPSHIRE
58
42 JOYCE KILMER MEMORIAL FOREST NORTH CAROLINA
63
43 WILLIAM L HUTCHESON MEMORIAL FOREST NEW JERSEY
70
44 BIALOWIEZA FOREST POLAND
73
45 HOH AND QUEETS VALLEYS OLYMPIC NATIONAL PARK WASHINGTON
80
DISTURBANCE IN NATURAL WOODLAND
86
51 DEFINITION OF DISTURBANCE
87
52 WIND
88
53 GAPS
91
54 BIOTIC DISTURBANCES
95
55 DROUGHT
99
56 FIRE
100
57 ICE AND SNOW
106
58 LANDSLIPS AND OTHER PHYSICAL DISTURBANCES
107
59 FLOODPLAINS
108
510 DISTURBANCES AND SUCCESSIONAL TIME
109
511 DISTURBANCE REGIMES
112
512 CONCLUSIONS
115
SUCCESSION AFTER CATASTROPHIC DISTURBANCES
117
61 DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST STANDS
118
62 SUCCESSION IN THE GROUND VEGETATION
123
63 LONGTERM SUCCESSIONS
125
64 EARLY MODELS OF SUCCESSION
128
65 BIOMASS ACCUMULATION MODEL OF BORMANN AND LIKENS
131
66 SUCCESSION MODELS IN TERMS OF SPECIES
132
67 THE DIVERSITY OF SUCCESSIONS
135
STRUCTURES AND DYNAMICS OF OLDGROWTH FORESTS
140
71 REGENERATION WITHIN ESTABLISHED WOODLAND
141
72 AGE AND DIMENSIONS OF TREES AND STANDS
149
73 MORTALITY IN OLDGROWTH STANDS
151
74 AGESTRUCTURE AT THE STAND SCALE
155
75 STANDSTRUCTURES
164
76 PATCHINESS IN STANDSTRUCTURE
168
77 DIVERSITY AND STABILITY IN COMPOSITION
175
78 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CONIFERS AND BROADLEAVES
178
79 ANALOGUES OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS
180
710 FLOODPLAIN FORESTS
183
COMPONENTS OF THE FOREST
187
81 DEAD WOOD
188
82 SOILS
194
83 PERMANENT OPEN SPACES
197
84 WATERCOURSES AND RIPARIAN ZONES
204
WILDLIFE OF NATURAL FORESTS
208
91 NATURAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN TEMPERATE FORESTS
209
92 FOREST HABITATS AND WILDLIFE
211
93 OLDGROWTH AS HABITAT
213
94 VERTEBRATES ASSOCIATED WITH OLDGROWTH
216
95 FIELD LAYER COMMUNITIES IN UNDISTURBED OLDGROWTH
218
96 THE FLORA OF GAPS
221
97 THE FAUNA OF OPEN SPACES
222
98 LARGE MAMMALS IN NATURAL FORESTS
223
99 WILDLIFE OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS WITHIN FORESTS
225
VIRGIN FOREST REMNANTS
227
HUMAN IMPACTS ON NATURAL FORESTS IN NORTH AMERICA
229
101 FORESTS AND PEOPLE IN PETERSHAM CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS
230
102 FRAGMENTATION AND CHANGES IN FOREST PATTERN
233
103 IMPACTS WITHIN THE FOREST
236
104 CHANGES IN THE FOREST SURROUNDINGS
240
105 SECONDARY WOODLAND
242
106 COMPARISON BETWEEN OLDGROWTH AND SECONDGROWTH AT THE SITE SCALE
244
107 REGIONAL CHANGES DUE TO LOGGING
248
108 REGIONAL CHANGES IN FARMED AREAS
253
109 OVERVIEW OF CHANGES IN THE FORESTS OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA
257
WILDLIFE RESPONSES TO THE MODIFICATION OF NATURAL FORESTS
260
111 DECLINE OF FOREST MAMMALS
261
112 CHANGES IN FOREST BIRDS
262
113 CHANGES IN EUROPEAN FOREST BIRDS
264
1112 CONCLUSIONS
278
PROTECTING VIRGIN FOREST REMNANTS
279
121 RECENT DESTRUCTION OF VIRGIN OLDGROWTH
280
122 SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PROTECTED NATURAL FORESTS
282
123 MOTIVATIONS FOR PROTECTING NATURAL FORESTS
284
124 RESERVES AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PRISTINE LANDSCAPE
285
125 STABILITY AND SCALE IN NATURAL RESERVES
286
126 SURVIVAL OF SPECIES IN NATURAL FOREST RESERVES
288
127 INFLUENCE OF SURROUNDINGS ON NATURAL RESERVES
289
128 IMPROVING THE PROTECTION OF VIRGIN AND OLDGROWTH RESERVES
292
129 CAN VIRGIN OLDGROWTH RESERVES BE NATURAL?
295
NATURAL FEATURES IN THE CONSERVATION OF BRITISH WOODLAND
297
WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT RATIONALE AND PRACTICE
299
131 NATURE CONSERVATION IN BRITAIN
301
132 SPECIAL FEATURES RELATING TO WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
303
133 SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF BRITISH WOODLAND WILDLIFE
305
134 OBJECTIVES AND PRIORITIES OF WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
310
135 VALUE OF ANCIENT SEMINATURAL WOODS
316
136 MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES FOR WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
317
137 WOODLAND NATURE RESERVES
318
138 CONSERVATIVE CONSERVATION IN WOODLAND
321
139 ECOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS BEHIND WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
322
BRITISH NATURAL WOODLAND
325
141 ORIGINALNATURAL WOODLAND
326
142 NATURAL LONGTERM TRENDS
327
143 WIND AS A COMPONENT OF THE NATURAL DISTURBANCE REGIME
328
144 OTHER NATURAL DISTURBANCES
335
145 PRESENTNATURAL WOODLAND
340
146 FUTURENATURAL WOODLAND
349
147 CONCLUSION
351
RECONSTRUCTING BRITISH NATURAL WOODLAND
352
151 NATURAL RESTORATION FROM ANCIENT SEMINATURAL WOODLAND
353
152 NATURAL SECONDARY SUCCESSION
362
153 CHOICE OF OBJECTIVES FOR RESTORING NATURAL WOODLAND
369
155 RESTORING SITE AND SOIL
370
156 CONTROLLING STAND COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE
371
157 ACCEPTING AND SIMULATING NATURAL DISTURBANCES
373
158 CONTROL OF WOODLAND FAUNA AND FLORA
374
159 INSULATING NATURAL RESERVES FROM THE LANDSCAPE
378
1510 PLANTING NEW ORIGINALNATURAL WOODLAND
379
1511 RESEARCH AS A BASIS FOR RECREATING NATURAL WOODLAND
381
MANAGEMENT OF BROADLEAVED WOODLAND
383
161 TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF BROADLEAVED WOODLAND
384
162 HIGH FOREST SYSTEMS
392
163 DEAD WOOD IN MANAGED WOODLAND
396
164 OPEN SPACES IN MANAGED WOODLAND
398
165 RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE LANDSCAPE
405
166 COMPARISON BETWEEN NATURAL AND MANAGED BROADLEAVED WOODLAND
408
167 CHOICE OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
410
168 NATURAL REGENERATION AND PLANTING
414
169 COMPOSITION
416
1610 MATURITY
419
1611 MANAGEMENT OF PERMANENT OPEN SPACES
421
1613 BROADLEAVED AFFORESTATION
422
1614 NATURAL ELEMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BROADLEAVED WOODLAND
423
DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF UPLAND CONIFER PLANTATIONS
425
171 THE SCALE OF CONIFER AFFORESTATION
426
DESCRIPTION AND DEVELOPMENT
427
173 HABITAT SYSTEMS
430
174 ECOLOGICAL CHANGES IN AND AROUND PLANTATIONS
441
175 CONTROVERSY AND AFFORESTATION
447
176 LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION AND NATURE CONSERVATION
448
177 NATURE CONSERVATION AND PLANTATION MANAGEMENT
451
178 MANAGEMENT OF OPEN SPACES
456
179 WHOLE FOREST DESIGN
458
1710 NATIVE PINEWOODS
459
1711 FOREST DISTRIBUTION
462
PRIORITIES IN WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
464
181 THE CHANGING CONTEXT OF WOODLAND NATURE CONSERVATION
465
182 WOODLAND NATURE RESERVES
467
183 RESEARCH ON WOODLAND NATURE RESERVES
470
184 MANAGEMENT OF ANCIENT WOODLAND
472
185 MANAGEMENT OF BROADLEAVED WOODLAND
475
186 UPLAND FORESTS
477
187 RESTORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOODS AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS
478
188 RESTORING LOST FOREST TYPES
480
189 THE FORESTRY PROFESSION
482
SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN TREES AND SHRUBS
487
BIBLIOGRAPHY
491
INDEX TO TREES AND SHRUBS
512
SITE INDEX
515
SUBJECT INDEX
518
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information