Brock Biology of Microorganisms
In the last 100 years a combination of traditional and molecular methods have forged microbiology into a premier experimental science. Moreover, the link between discovery and application in the field of microbiology, a classic example of which is depicted on the front cover of this book, has deep roots and becomes stronger all the time. One of the giants of early microbiology was the Dutchman, Martinus Beijerinck. Beijerinck is credited with many original discoveries in microbiology, especially in the area of enrichment and isolation of soil bacteria. Shown on the front cover is a page from Beijerincks laboratory notebook dated June 9, 1887. On this page he made detailed notes and drawings about the bacteria that he cultured from the root nodules of leguminous plants-bacteria that were later discovered to fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a form usable by the plant. Modern agriculture has exploited microbial nitrogen fixation by root nodule bacteria for the large-scale cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops like peas and soybeans. The paintings of bacterial cells that overlay the notebook page, done in large format by Beijerincks sister, Henri?tte, were Beijerincks way of
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acetate activity aerobic agar amino acids anaerobic animals anoxic antibiotics Archaea bacterium base pairs called carbon cell wall cellular Chapter chemical chemolithotrophs chromosome cloning codon colonies complex compounds Concept Check contain culture cyanobacteria cycle cytoplasmic membrane diameter disease DNA molecule double-stranded electron acceptor electron donor Electron micrograph encoding endospores energy enzyme Escherichia coli eukaryotic fatty acids fermentation Figure filamentous flagella formation function ganisms genera genes genetic genome genus glucose gram-negative gram-positive grow growth habitats hydrogen hyperthermophiles infection involved isolated lambda lipid mechanism metabolism methanogens methanotrophs microbial microbiology microorganisms molecular motile mRNA mutations nucleic acid nutrients occurs organisms oxidation oxygen pathogenic pathway peptidoglycan phage photosynthesis phototrophic phylogenetic plants plasmid production prokaryotes protein Proteobacteria proton motive force reaction recombination reduced replication ribosomal RNA polymerase Section sequence shown single-stranded species strains strand structure substrate synthesis Table temperature tion transcription tRNA vector viral virion virus viruses yeast