Cooperation among Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective
Despite the depiction of nature "red in tooth and claw," cooperation is actually widespread in the animal kingdom. Various types of cooperative behaviors have been documented in everything from insects to primates, and in every imaginable ecological scenario. Yet why animals cooperate is still a hotly contested question in literature on evolution and animal behavior. This book examines the history surrounding the study of cooperation, and proceeds to examine the conceptual, theoretical and empirical work on this fascinating subject. Early on, it outlines the four different categories of cooperation -- reciprocal altruism, kinship, group-selected cooperation and byproduct mutualism -- and ties these categories together in a single framework called the Cooperator's Dilemma. Hundreds of studies on cooperation in insects, fish, birds and mammals are reviewed. Cooperation in this wide array of taxa includes, but is not limited to, cooperative hunting, anti-predator behavior, foraging, sexual coalitions, grooming, helpers-at-the nest, territoriality, 'policing' behavior and group thermoregulation. Each example outlined is tied back to the theoretical framework developed early on, whenever the data allows. Future experiments designed to further elucidate a particular type of cooperation are provided throughout the book.
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1 Historical Perspectives on Cooperative Behavior
2 Theoretical Perspectives on the Evolution of Cooperation
3 Cooperation in Fishes
4 Cooperation in Birds
7 Cooperation in Insects
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alarm calls ALLD Allee allogrooming allomothering alloparenting animals anti-predator argued Behav Biol birds Boesch Boyd breeding Brown byproduct mutualism category of cooperation chapter cheat Cheney chimps coalitions coefficient of relatedness colony Connor context cooperative behavior cooperative hunting cooperator’s dilemma costs and benefits D-strategist defection Dugatkin eggs evidence evolution of cooperation evolutionary evolve examine example females fish food calling foraging genetic grooming group members group selection helpers Hemelrijk honeybee hypothesis inclusive fitness increase individuals inspectors interactions kin selection kinship lions males mammals mate Mesterton-Gibbons Milinski mobbing models naked mole rats natural selection nest Nowak offspring Packer pairs partner payoff matrix pergandei player population predator inspection prey primates prisoner’s dilemma probability queen Queller raiding reciprocal altruism Reeve relatedness reproductive Rissing role Seyfarth social insects Sociobiol species sticklebacks strategy suggests superorganism territory Theo theory thermoregulation tion trait group unrelated vervets Waal willow tits Wilson workers