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Mathematical Representations of Continuous Physical Systems
Fundamentals of SampledData and Discrete System Theory
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accuracy analog analog computer analysis applications approximating function block diagram calculate chapter coefficients continuous system continuous-system corrector data reconstructor defined developed difference equation differential equation differential-equation digital computer digital simulation model discrete integrating operators discrete system discrete transfer function error model evaluate Example excitation expression first-order first-order hold illustrated in Fig initial conditions integration formulas inverse Laplace transform linear stationary linear system mathematical model MIMIC nonlinear system nonstationary system numerical methods obtain operational methods parameters performing phase-locked loop physical system poles presented procedure real-time representation represented round-off round-off error Runge-Kutta methods sampled-data model sampler selected sequence shown in Fig simulated response simulation design simulation error simulation increment simulation languages solution specific spectral density stability statement stationary systems step substituting system model system response Table techniques time-varying time-varying system tion trapezoidal rule truncation error Tustin unit circle values vector z-transform zero zero-order hold