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Introduction By R R Heikes and R W Ure Jr
Classical and Irreversible Thermodynamic Treatment of Ther
Theoretical Calculation of Device Performance By R W Ure
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alloy assumed atoms calculated carrier concentration Chapter charge carriers Chem coefficient of performance cold junction compounds conduction band considered constant contact resistance couple curve decrease defects density determined diffusion dislocation donor doping effective mass efficiency electrical conductivity electrical resistivity electrons energy gap equation Fermi energy Fermi level figure of merit flux freezing function germanium given by Eq heat flow heater high temperatures hole increase interface ionic ionized impurity scattering ions lattice thermal conductivity layer liquid maximum measured mechanism melting metal method mixed valence mobility mode multivalley n-type n-type semiconductor obtained oxides oxygen parameter particle PbTe perature phase diagram phonon Phys potential produced properties radiation ratio result sample Seebeck coefficient semiconductors shown in Fig solid solute specimen stoichiometry surface temperature dependence temperature difference temperature gradient theory thermal conductivity thermocouple thermoelectric materials tion vacancies valence band velocity voltage zero