## The Physics of Quarks: New ResearchA quark is a type of elementary particle found in protons and neutrons and other subatomic particles. They are a major constituent of matter, along with leptons. In nature, quarks are never found on their own, as isolated, single particles; rather, they are bound together in composite particles named hadrons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been inferred from observations on the hadrons themselves. This book provides leading edge research on this field from around the globe. |

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### Contents

Stable Quarks of the 4th Family? | 19 |

A BetheSalpeter Framework under Covariant Instantaneous | 49 |

Pentaquarks Structure and Reactions | 75 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

approach associated atomic baryon becomes bound calculation charge charm close coefficients collisions color considered constant contribution corrections corresponding cosmic rays coupling covariants cross section decay density dependence describe Dirac discussed distribution Edited effective energy equation expected experimental experiments expression factor fields Figure function gauge given gluon hadron heavy quark integral interaction lattice leading Lett light limit mass matter mechanics mesons momentum Nucl observed obtained panel parameter particles parton phase Phys physics plasma possible potential PQCD present problem production quantum quantum mechanics quark recent reduced relative relativistic resonance respectively RHIC scale scattering shown soliton solutions special relativity spectra strong structure symmetry temperature theory thermal transition U-hadrons Universe values variables various vector vertex Volume wave function