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abstract Adam Smith appears become bourgeois bullion buyer capital capitalist circulation of commodities circulation of money commodity owner concrete category constitutes consumption culation currency David Ricardo determined distribution duction economists English exchange value existence expressed fact function gold and silver gold as money hand hoarding ideal individual latter material means of payment means of purchase measure of value medium of circulation metamorphosis modities money in circulation money of account movement natural ounce of gold owners of commodities political economy pounds sterling precious metals prices of commodities process of circulation process of exchange proportion quantity of gold quantity of labor-time quantity of money realized relations of production represent Ricardo seller shillings social labor sphere of circulation standard of price tion token of value universal equivalent universal labor-time use-value value of commodities value of gold value of money wealth yard of linen
Page 11 - At a certain stage of their development the material forces of production in society come into conflict with the existing relations of production, or — what is but a legal expression for the same thing - with the property relations within which they had been at work before. From forms of development of the forces of production these relations turn into their fetters.
Page 11 - The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.
Page 57 - I have long aimed at) to express myself in Terms of Number, Weight, or Measure ; to use only Arguments of Sense, and to consider only such Causes, as have visible Foundations in Nature...
Page 12 - With the change of the economic foundation the entire immense superstructure is more or less rapidly transformed. In considering such transformations a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic — in short ideological forms in which men become conscious...
Page 13 - ... such a period of transformation by its own consciousness; on the contrary, this consciousness must rather be explained from the contradictions of material life, from the existing conflict between the social forces of production and the relations of production. No social order ever disappears before all the productive forces, for which there is room in it, have been developed; and new higher relations of production never appear before the material conditions of their existence have matured in...
Page 13 - Therefore mankind always sets itself only such tasks as it can solve; since, looking at the matter more closely, it will always be found that the task itself arises only when the material conditions for its solution already exist or are at least in the process of formation.
Page 12 - In considering such transformations the distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic, or philosophic — in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.
Page 19 - The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as "an immense accumulation of commodities," its unit being a single commodity.
Page 11 - ... by themselves, nor explained by the so-called general progress of the human mind, but that they are rooted in the material conditions of life, which are summed up by Hegel after the fashion of the English and French of the eighteenth century under the name "civic society;" the anatomy of that civic society is to be sought in political economy.