Before Revelation: The Boundaries of Muslim Moral Thought
Before Revelation studies the development of Muslim jurisprudential and theological thought as expressed in the extensive dispute over the assessment of acts that took place before the arrival of Revelation.
Between the ninth and nineteenth centuries Muslims debated, often fiercely, the question, "What is the value of an act--moving from place to place, breathing, or eating a tasty food, for instance--before Revelation arrives?" That is, Muslims, whose existence as Muslims derived from the Qur'anic Revelation, debated whether acts could be called "good," or "reprehensible," before the Qur'an. This book analyzes that prolonged debate from a History of Religions perspective, using sources from the Muslim sciences of jurisprudential theory (usal-fiqh) and theology (kalam).
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Development and Doxography
The Three Positions
The Permitted Position
Translation of a Section from alFusﬁlff lUsﬁl 0falJa_s_sas
Translation of a Section from Kitab alMustasfafi ilm alusﬂl
Thanking the Benefactor
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Abdaljabbar Abﬁ Abii Abu Bakr Abu Ya‘la act’s acts before Revelation Ahmad al-‘Uddah al-Ash‘ari al-Baghdadi Al-Bahr al-Baqillani al-Ghazali al-Jassas al-Juwayni al-Ka‘bi Al-Kalwadhani al-Qaffal al-sam al-Shaﬁ‘i Al-Shirazi Al-Tamh id aqli argue argument Ash‘ari assertion Assessors attribute Baghdadi Basrans Bemand benefaction beneﬁt Cairo chapter command created debate deﬁnition detestable discussion doxography Edited epistemology falsehood ﬁfth ﬁrst forbidden God’s Hanafis Hanbali harm Hourani hukm human Ibn Abi Ibn Hazm Ibn Qudamah Ibn Qutaybah Ibn Surayj indicant ingratitude inquiry Ishaq Islamic khamr Kitab l-Hasan l-Hudhayl later made-responsible madhhab Makdisi means mentis moral knowledge Mu‘tazilah Mu‘tazili mubah Mughni Muhammad Muslim nabidh nature ni‘mah Obligatory one’s ontology permission Permitted position Permitters problem Proscribed position Proscription punishment question Qur’an reﬂection Refraining revelation complex Revelation’s reward scholars seems Shaﬁ‘i shar Sharh shukr signiﬁcance sources sub verbo Subki Tabaqat Taymiyyah term testable thanking the benefactor things tion translation usul al-ﬁqh wajh Zahiris