# Gravity from A New Angle

Karunakar Marasakatla, Mar 22, 2009 - Science
Definition and the measurement of mass are fundamental to physics. Almost all the principles in physics are dependent on this mass and its measurement. Mass, according to the definition, appears to be representing the amount of matter inside an object irrespective of its shape and size. In reality, the way we measure the mass has no relation to the amount of matter inside an object. When we measure or compare the mass of two objects in a balance scale, what we exactly comparing is the gravity of earth to each of these two objects as they were being pulled down, not the amount of matter inside them. If measurement of mass is simply a comparison of gravity then the concept of mass defect in an object is simply decrease in gravity of that object to earth. In a nuclear reaction, if a resultant nucleus losses mass, it means the nucleus actually measures less gravity to earth compared to its initial form before the reaction. Similarly, if a nucleus gains more mass, it in fact is exerting more gravity to the earth. Binding energy within an object increases when we compress that object to a point size. According to the mass-energy equivalence principle, if energy increases in an object, mass of that object also increases because energy and mass are proportional to each other. If mass is a comparative gravity, then a compressed point mass object will measure more gravity than its normal counterpart with same amount of matter. It means the amount of gravity an object exerts increases as the object decreases in size. This practical observation of binding energy and related increase in gravity goes against the definition of mass which says that the mass is not dependent on the size of the object. This contradiction between the definition of mass and the measurement of mass is the main difficulty in unifying the physical forces. Even though the definition of mass is being used for centuries, there is no experimental evidence for an object to have same amount of gravity to the earth irrespective of its size. Unification of physical forces is simply in displacing the balance based measurement for the amount of matter inside an object with volume based measurement. Along with the mass, many other basic concepts like force, resultant force, and inverse square law are also flawed to the core. Pioneer anomaly is simply the additional gravity exerted by the sun when it appears like a point mass in the outskirts of the solar system.

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