Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Volume 2: Instructional Management

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Army Research Laboratory, Dec 10, 2014

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About the author (2014)

Dr. Robert Sottilare serves as the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of the Simulation & Training Technology Center (STTC) within the Human Research and Engineering Directorate (HRED) at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). He also leads adaptive tutoring research within ARL's Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Environments (LITE) Laboratory where the focus of his research is in automated authoring, instructional management, and analysis tools and methods for intelligent tutoring systems. His work is widely published and includes recent articles in the Cognitive Technology and the Educational Technology Journals. Dr. Sottilare is a co-creator of GIFT ( He received his doctorate in modeling and simulation from the University of Central Florida with a focus in intelligent systems. In January 2012, he was honored as the inaugural recipient of the U.S. Army Research Development & Engineering Command's Modeling & Simulation Lifetime Achievement Award.

Dr. Graesser is a professor in the Department of Psychology and the Institute of Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis and is an Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Oxford. His primary research interests are in cognitive science, discourse processing, and the learning sciences. More specific interests include knowledge representation, question asking and answering, tutoring, text comprehension, inference generation, conversation, reading, memory, emotions, computational linguistics, artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction, learning technologies with animated conversational agents (such as AutoTutor and Operation ARA), and automated analyses of texts at multiple levels (such as Coh-Metrix, and Question Understanding AID [QUAID]). He served as editor of the journal Discourse Processes (1996-2005) and Journal of Educational Psychology (2009‒2014). His service in professional societies includes president of the Empirical Studies of Literature, Art, and Media (1989‒1992), the Society for Text and Discourse (2007-2010), the International Society for Artificial Intelligence in Education (2007‒2009), and the Federation of Associations for Behavioral and Brain Sciences Foundation (2012‒2013). In addition to receiving major lifetime research achievements awards from the Society for Text and Discourse and University of Memphis, he received an award in 2011 from American Psychological Association on Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

Dr. Xiangen Hu is a professor in the Department of Psychology at The University of Memphis (UoM) and senior researcher at the Institute for Intelligent Systems (IIS) at the UofM and visiting professor at Central China Normal University (CCNU). Dr. Hu received his MS in applied mathematics (1985) from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, MA in social sciences (1991) and Ph.D. in cognitive sciences (1993) from the University of California, Irvine. Currently, Dr. Hu is the director of the cognitive psychology at the UofM, the Director of Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Center for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) Research & Development, and senior researcher in the Chinese Ministry of Education's Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior. Dr. Hu's primary research areas include mathematical psychology, research design and statistics, and cognitive psychology. More specific research interests include general processing tree (GPT) models, categorical data analysis, knowledge representation, computerized tutoring, and advanced distributed learning. Dr. Hu receives funding for the above research from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Institute for Education Sciences (IES), ADL of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (USAMRAA), U.S. Army Research Laboratories (ARL), U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR), UofM, and CCNU.

Dr. Goldberg is a member of the Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Environments (LITE) Lab at Human Research & Engineering Directorate (HRED) at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Simulation and Training Technology Center (STTC) in Orlando, Florida. He has been conducting research in the modeling and simulation community for the past five years with a focus on adaptive learning and how to leverage artificial intelligence tools and methods for adaptive computer-based instruction. Currently, he is the LITE Lab's lead scientist on instructional strategy research within adaptive training environments. He explores the development and integration of tools and methods for delivering tailored training experiences, and identifies strategies of interest for empirical evaluation to assess their effectiveness across multiple domains. Dr. Goldberg holds doctoral and masters degrees in modeling & simulation from the University of Central Florida. Prior to employment with ARL, he held a graduate research assistant position for two years in the Applied Cognition and Training in Immersive Virtual Environments (ACTIVE) Lab at the Institute for Simulation and Training. Dr. Goldberg's work has been published across several well-known conferences, with recent contributions to both the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) proceedings.

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