The Causes of High and Low Reading Achievement
This book describes all of the important factors that cause some students to have low reading achievement and others to have high reading achievement. It concentrates on the main factors that influence how much a student gains in reading achievement during a year of school, or a calendar year. An attempt is made to answer the following questions: what can educators do to increase reading achievement, and what is beyond their influence?
The author is directly concerned with achievement associated with normal or typical reading. The focus of the book is on things teachers can do during an entire school year that are likely to improve the reading level and reading rate of students, which in turn, will increase their reading achievement. This effort to specify the most important causes of high and low reading achievement represents an integration of two disciplines of scientific psychology--experimental psychology and psychometrics.
A glossary at the end of the book contains definitions of terms and concepts. Helpful appendices explain rauding theory, the three laws of rauding theory, and the equations that can be used to predict the accuracy of reading comprehension, provide conversions among units of rauding rate, and list the numbered equations presented in the book.
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accuracy level accuracy of comprehension accuracy of text advanced readers alphabetic principle automaticity beginning readers Carver causal model Chapter cipher knowledge cognitive speed level context correlated crystallized intelligence direct measure dyslexia dyslexic earlier Echelon Educational Psychology efficiency level Equation evidence example factor fluid intelligence Handicapped/g increase PL indicant of AL indicant of RL involved letters lexicon low reading achievement means naming speed orthographic overlearned passage Perfetti phonics phonological phonological awareness PLWords poor readers predicted pronounce pronunciation aptitude pronunciation knowledge pronunciation level proximal causes pseudowords pure decoding raudamaticity training raudamatized words rauding accuracy rauding approach rauding process rauding rate rauding theory read text reading ability reading comprehension tests reading disability reading instruction reading level reading rate relatively easy relevant scores sentences skills spelling Stanovich students in grades teaching and learning text comprehension theoretical construct verbal level whole-language approach word identification word recognition