Artificial intelligence and human cognition: a theoretical intercomparison of two realms of intellect
Morton Wagman examines the emulation of human cognition by artificial intelligence systems. Human thought and computer thought are compared in their distinctiveness and commonality. The book provides detailed examples of artificial intelligence programs (such as the FERMI System and the KEKADA program) accomplishing highly intellectual tasks. This, together with its coverage of general theoretical perspectives on the nature of cognition, make this volume both a valuable sourcebook and a stimulus for students and professionals in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence courses. A general introduction to the computational modeling of cognition opens the book. Considered next are computational reasoning and human rationality. The range, depth, and sensitivity of mathematical and legal reasoning systems are compared with human mathematicians and human jurisprudence. General issues concerning the quality of human rationality are examined in several contexts: the prediction of economic behavior, mathematical abstraction and the concept of the infintesimal, and probalilistic judgement under uncertainty. Other chapters consider the nature of problem solving in the context of general intellectual principles and specific domain knowledge, the cognition of scientific discovery, and language representation modes and information processing efficiency. In the last chapter the most impressive intellectual achievements of AI systems are summarized. Directions for further intellectual research in this realm are also indicated.
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TWO Reasoning and Rationality
THREE Problem Solving and Knowledge
6a Circuit Diagram for a Problem Requiring Application
5 other sections not shown
amino acids analysis angle Appel and Haken applied arginine artificial intelligence assumption bacterial endocarditis Bayes's theorem behavior BigTrak Carbonell Cognitive Science colors computational theories counteroffer current hypothesis data structure decomposition diagram diagrammatic representation domain-specific elements encoded equations EVALUATE example experiment space experimental FERMI Figure formal four-color four-color conjecture four-color theorem frame geometry Gugliotta H. A. Simon hangs heuristics hypothesis space inference rules infinitesimal invariance J. H. Larkin KEKADA Klahr and Dunbar knowledge Krebs Krebs's Kulkarni and Simon language Larkin and Simon Legal Reasoning line 6 region locations logic mathematical proof neoclassical economics normal map ornithine ornithine effect OUTCOMES path physical pressure drop problem solving production rules proof pulley pulley-system quantity reaction Reif repeat Reprinted with permission revocation rope scientific discovery process SDDS segment sentential representation slot values solution specific strategy subjects Table telegram TEST HYPOTHESIS theorem tion urea vertex