Methodology of History
D. Reidel ; Polish Scientific Publ., 1976 - History - 690 pages
No discipline has been more praised or more criticized than the writing of history. Cioero claimed that history teaches men how to live. Aris totle denied it the very name of science and regwded poetry as the higher wisdom. At various times history has been assigned a command ing or a demeaning statIUs in the hierarchy of sciences. Today one can admire the increasing precision and sophistication of the methods used by historia:ns. On the other hand, Thucydides' History of the PeZo ponesian War still serves as the ideal model of how to reconstruct the historical past. Even those who deny the possibility of an objective reconstruction of the past would themselves likie to be recorded by historians, "objectively" or not. Dislike of history and fear of its verdict are not incompatible with reverence and awe for its practitioners, the historians. So man's attitude to history is ambiguous. The controversy about history continues. Widely differing issues are at stake. Historians themselves, however, are the least engaged in the struggle. Rarely does a historian decide to open the door of his study and join in the melee about the meaning of history. More often he slams it shut and returns to his studies, oblivious of the fact that with the passage of thne the gap between his scientific work and its audience might widen. The historian does not shun the battle, he merely chooses his own battleground.
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Induction and deduction in research
Induction and deduction in historical research
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acceptance actions activity analysis answer applies approach authenticity called causal causes century changes characteristic cognition concept concerned connection consideration consists course criticism determinism dialectical direct disciplines discussed earlier economic effect elements establishing existence explanation factors formulation given hence historians historical facts historical research historiography human hypotheses ideas important indicate indirect individual inference instance interest interpretation issue knowledge language latter laws linked logical materialism means ment method methodology namely nature non-source-based knowledge objective observations opinion origin past period person Philosophy possible present principle probability problem procedure production progress question refer reflection regularities relations reliability requires role scientific sense social society sources specified stage statements structure term theory tion treated true truth usually values various whole writing