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A Necessary Condition
Hope and Action
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ability Abnormal and Social achieve action activities animals attaining the goal audiogenic avoid behavior chapter communication condition develop difficulties effect electric shock escape experience Experimental Psychology factors failed failure fear feel frustration function given goal attainment goal gradient higher order schema hopeful schema hopelessness hospital important increased individual individual's influence interpretation invocability invoked Journal of Abnormal Journal of Experimental lead learning less Level of Aspiration level of expectation level of performance lower order schemas mental mental Psychology motivation neurosis open ward organism organism's pain patients perception persistence person poor premorbids present theory problem Proposition Psychiatry psychotherapy rats reaction received reduce anxiety reinforcement relationship relevant reports response result sche schizo schizophrenics and normals secondary reinforcement self-esteem shock showed similar situation Social Psychology staff stimuli subjects success systematic desensitization task therapeutic therapists therapy tients tion told treatment trials vidual withdrawal