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acres Agra Canal aqueduct average bank Bari Doab Canal Bengal Bhatgarh Bombay boulders branches carried catchment cent centre Chenab Canal constructed cost crops cubic feet cubic foot delta deposited depth distributaries down-stream drainage duty Eastern Jumna Canal embankment fall feet a second feet per second floor flow flow-off Ganges Canal gates groynes head head-sluice head-works height inches India inundation canals irrigation Jhelum khareef Kistna land length lifted lock Lower Ganges Canal Madras Mahanuddee masonry maximum discharge Midnapore Midnapore Canal Narora navigation necessary Orissa outlets piers Plate pressure Punjab rabi rainfall Ravi Ravi river regulator reservoir Revenue river bed rubble Rupees sand scour season shingle shutters silt Sirhind Canal sketch slope sluices soil Sone Canals square miles stone stream super-passage surface syphon tanks tatils tract under-sluices United Provinces up-stream upper utilised varies velocity vents vertical wall waste weir waterway weir crest Western Jumna width
Page 16 - Before the construction of the canal it was entirely waste, with an extremely small population, which was mostly nomad. Some portion of the country was wooded with jungle trees, some was covered with small scrub camel thorn, and large tracts were absolutely bare, producing only, on occasions, a brilliant mirage of unbounded sheets of fictitious water.
Page 224 - ... difficulties of excessive velocity and great action down stream have been overcome. A sketch of one of these notches is given in Fig. 58 (from Buckley). On the Chenab Canal, in India, falls have been constructed of a row of these notches cut in a breast wall. The principle of the design is that the notches discharge at any given level the same amount of water approximately as the canal above carries at that level, so that there is no increase in velocity in the canal as the water approaches the...
Page 66 - Beresford, who studied the matter closely in the North-West Provinces, came to the following conclusions :— 1. That loss by absorption is greater when a canal is in cutting than when it is in embankment. 2. That, when the other conditions are constant, the loss by absorption varies directly as the wetted perimeter of the channel. 3. That under ordinary conditions the loss by absorption between the head of a distributary and any point L miles from the head...
Page 108 - ... can be calculated. This point is of great importance, as upon it depends the necessity for constructing embankments to control the river above the weir, so as to prevent inundation and the possibility of the river outflanking the weir. The most suitable position as a rule for a weir and head works of a canal is on a portion of the river where the channel is straight, the velocity uniform, and the sectional area of the stream fairly constant. A narrow gorge of a river appears to have the advantage...
Page 290 - ... the parallel lines: the trapezoid thus formed will be the best form of channel, and the width at the surface will be equal to the sum of the two side slopes.
Page 26 - Sind, which draw their supplies from branches separated from the main river by islands covered with brushwood and long grass, contain a comparatively small amount of material in suspension. The brushwood and grass impede the velocity of the water and clarify it.
Page 7 - Bank. 5. Mithrao — Wanga Bazar. The longest canal was the Fuleli. " Originally it was a natural branch of the Indus, which it rejoined about 16 miles below Hyderabad, but the outlet into the river was closed by a dam in the time of the Amirs and the water was sent forward to feed other canals to the south.
Page 28 - ... their own cattle, it is otherwise an expensive method, and can only be made to pay by cultivating the more valuable kinds of crops. Moreover, it would seem to be out of favour with those who have had experience of both canal and well water. Mr. Buckley remarks : " The superiority of the rain-water over that of wells is demonstrated by the fact that near the heads of the Punjab canals the cultivators prefer to pay canal rates and to lift the water from the canals rather than to lift it from wells,...
Page 186 - ... on, so as to make the strain perfectly uniform. The shutters were brought home in a current of 10 feet per second. 5th. That three men can knock away the back-stays with a pressure of between five and six feet with ease and security. 6th. That twelve men are necessary to lift each of the back shutters into position.