## Theory of HeatThough James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them. As James R. Newman put it, Maxwell "combined a profound physical intuition, an exquisite feeling for the relationship of objects, with a formidable mathematical capacity to establish orderly connections among diverse phenomena. This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the chief characteristic of almost all his researches." |

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### Contents

INTRODUCTION | 1 |

THE MERCURIAL THERMOMETER | 5 |

Introduction | 6 |

Introduction | 10 |

ON THE DIFFERENT PHYSICAL STATES OF BODIES | 16 |

ON THERMOMETRY OR THE THEORY OF TEMPERATURE | 32 |

Thermometry | 34 |

Scale of the Thermometer | 37 |

ON THE INTRINSIC ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES | 185 |

AvAILABLE ENERGY | 187 |

Energy Entropy and Dissipaticn | 192 |

MECHANICAL AND THERMAL ANALOGIES | 193 |

Machanical | 195 |

ON FREE EXPANSION | 209 |

Free Expansion | 211 |

Dynamical Equivalent of Heat | 213 |

Thermometry | 40 |

ON THE AIR THERMOMETER | 46 |

Absolute Temperatures | 51 |

CALORIMETRY | 54 |

Calorimetry | 56 |

ICE CALORIMETERS | 58 |

Bunseris Calorimeter | 61 |

METHOD OF MIXTURE | 63 |

DEFINITION OF THE CAPACITY OF A BODY | 65 |

Method of Double Experiments | 69 |

ELEMENTARY DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLES | 74 |

STANDARD OF LENGTH | 76 |

Measurement of Force | 83 |

ON WORK AND ENERGY | 87 |

GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY | 92 |

ON THE MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE AND OTHER INTERNAL FORCES AND OF THE EFFECTS WHICH THEY PRODUCE | 94 |

Pressures and Tensions | 95 |

WORK DONE BY A PISTON ON A FLUID | 101 |

ON INDICATOR DIAGRAMS | 102 |

Elasticity | 107 |

ON LINES OF EQUAL TEMPERATURE OR ISOTHERilAL LINES ON THE INDICATOR DIAGRAM | 108 |

CASES The Gaseous State | 110 |

INDICATOR DIAGRAM OF A SUBSTANCE PART OF WHICH IS LIQUID AND PART VAPOUR | 113 |

Steam Line and Water Line tt7 | 117 |

Isothermal Curves | 118 |

ON THE PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE WHEN HEAT IS PREvENTED FROM ENTERING OR LEAVING IT | 127 |

Adiabatic Curves | 130 |

Adiabatic Curves | 134 |

HEAT ENGINES | 138 |

First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics t53 | 153 |

THOMSONS ABSOLUTE SCALE OF TEMPERATURE | 155 |

EFFICIENCY OF A HEAT ENGINE | 158 |

Heat Engines | 160 |

Thermodynamics | 162 |

Thermodynamics | 164 |

ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE | 165 |

SPECIFIC HEAT | 169 |

Relations of Specific Heat and Elasticity | 171 |

LATENT HEAT | 173 |

Latent Heat | 176 |

THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS TO GASES | 178 |

Application of Thermodynamics to Gases | 180 |

Ratio of Elasticities | 183 |

ON THE DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER | 217 |

Measurement of Heights by the Barometer | 218 |

Measurement of Heights by the Barometer | 220 |

Height of a Mountain | 221 |

ON THE PROPAGATION OF WAVES | 223 |

Waves | 228 |

ON RADIATION | 230 |

Radiation | 234 |

Polarization | 237 |

ON PREVOSTS THEORY OF EXCHANGES | 240 |

Radiation | 246 |

EFFECT OF RADIATION ON THERMOMETERS | 248 |

ON CONVECTIONCURRENTS | 250 |

Convection | 252 |

ON THE DIFFUSION OF HEAT BY CONDUCTION | 253 |

ON THE DIMENSIONS OF k THE SPECIFIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY | 255 |

Sketch of Fouriers Theory | 259 |

Harmonic Distribution of Temperature | 263 |

Steady and Periodic Plow of Heat | 265 |

OF BODIES | 268 |

APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY | 272 |

ON THE DIFFUSION OF FLUIDS | 273 |

Law of Diffusion | 275 |

Diffusion of Matter | 278 |

CAPILLARITY | 279 |

Capillarity | 280 |

Capillarity | 286 |

in Relation to Evaporation and Condensation | 287 |

Capillarity | 292 |

ON ELASTICITY AND VISCOSITY On Stresses and Strains | 294 |

Viscous Solids | 297 |

ON THE MOLECULAR THEORY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF BODIES | 301 |

Heat is Motion | 303 |

ON THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES | 307 |

Laws of Boyle and GayLussac | 315 |

Laws of Dulong and Petit | 319 |

Diffusion Conduction and Viscosity | 321 |

MOLECULAR THEORY OF EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION | 323 |

MOLECULAR THEORY OF ELECTROLYSIS | 325 |

MOLECULAR THEORY OF RADIATION | 326 |

Radiation | 327 |

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF MOLECULES | 330 |