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absolute convergence applied attraction components becomes infinite closed surface component of attraction consider coordinates corresponding definite limit denote distance divergent element of mass equal extending to infinity finite superior limit force-intensity formula function of position Gauss theorem gravitation property greater Green's Theorem Hence Hydrodynamics hypothetical continuous incremental ratio infinity inner boundaries integral is convergent integral representing integral taken kinetic energy Laplace's equation less limit zero linear dimensions magnetisation mathematical movable solid Newtonian law normal force order of magnitude order of smallness particle passage to limit physically small portion potential and attractions region of integration semi-convergence shape shew solid angle sphere subject of integration suppose surface density surface distribution surface integral surrounding the point tangent plane tangential component tends to vanishing tends to zero term test of convergence uniformly continuous vanishing cavity vector potential velocity potential volume element volume integral zero limit