Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: an Impossible Dream?
As corruption is a serious problem in many Asian countries their governments have introduced many anti-corruption measures since the 1950s. This book analyzes and evaluates the anti-corruption strategies employed in Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mongolia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. These countries are selected because they represent the three major patterns of corruption control with Japan adopting Pattern 1 (anti-corruption laws without any anti-corruption agency [ACA]); India, the Philippines and Taiwan employing Pattern 2 (anti-corruption laws with multiple ACAs); and Singapore, Hong Kong SAR, Thailand, South Korea, Indonesia, and Mongolia belonging to Pattern 3 (anti-corruption laws with a single ACA). Among the ten countries only Singapore and Hong Kong SAR have succeeded in minimizing corruption because of the commitment of their political leaders in curbing corruption, their favorable policy contexts, and the impartial implementation of effective anti-corruption measures. On the other hand, the other eight Asian countries have failed to curb corruption because of the lack of political will, their unfavorable policy contexts, and their reliance on ineffective anti-corruption measures.
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CHAPTER 2 JAPAN
CHAPTER 3 INDIA
CHAPTER 4 THE PHILIPPINES
CHAPTER 5 TAIWAN
CHAPTER 6 SINGAPORE
CHAPTER 7 HONG KONG
CHAPTER 8 THAILAND
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administrative agencies amakudari anticorruption laws anticorruption measures anticorruption strategy Asian Asian countries baht Bank’s bribery bribes budget bureaucratic corruption cause of corruption Chapter civil servants civil service combating corruption Commission Control of Corruption corrupt offenses corrupt practices corruption control CPIB CPIB’s crime curbing corruption Department economic effective election fighting corruption gift-giving gifts government’s Hanbo Hong Kong IAAC ICAC ICAC’s imprisonment increased India Indonesia ineffective investigation Japan Japanese Kong’s low salaries million minimizing corruption MJIB Mongolia monthly salary National NCCC opportunities for corruption parties People’s PERC percent performance personnel Philippines police corruption policy context political leaders population position President Presidential Prevention Prime Minister problem prosecutors public officials public trust punished Quah red tape reform reports respondents Schwab Singapore Singapore’s Soeharto Source South Korea sq km survey Taiwan Teh Cheang Wan Tehelka Thai Thailand Transparency International trust of politicians tugriks vote-buying World Bank