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HISTORY OF ELK IN MICHIGAN
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age classes annual antler Aspen-Hardwoods Balsam fir bark-stripping basswood Black River calves Canada Creek Ranch cherry club lands Conifer-Hardwoods coniferous conifers controlled hunting cow-calf groups cows cuttings damage December deer and elk density depredations disease distribution Dominants early Eastern hemlock elk and deer elk groups elk herd elk hunting elk per square elk range females fetuses field forage forest Habitat Types harem harvest hunters hunting sample important indicate jack pine Juneberry Lake losses males marked elk mature bulls Michigan mortality rate movements northern hardwoods numbers observations pellet group survey period Pigeon River plots primary range pure aspen range area range conditions rate of increase ratio red maple season sex and age shrubs species square mile Stabilized Openings stems stratum Sugar maple summer swamp conifers Table l5 Total Kill trees Trembling aspen utilization Viburnum white cedar white-tailed deer wildlife winter winter band wintergreen woody yearlings