The El Niņo-Southern Oscillation Phenomenon
Many climatic extremes around the globe, such as severe droughts and floods, can be attributed to the periodic warming of the equatorial Pacific sea surface, termed the El Niņo or Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Advances in our understanding of ENSO, in which Edward S. Sarachik and Mark A. Cane have been key participants, have led to marked improvements in our ability to predict its development months or seasons, allowing adaptation to global impacts. This book introduces basic concepts and builds to more detailed theoretical treatments. Chapters on the structure and dynamics of the tropical ocean and atmosphere place ENSO in a broader observational and theoretical context. Chapters on ENSO prediction, past and future, and impacts, introduce broader implications of the phenomenon. This book provides an introduction to all aspects of this most important mode of global climate variability, for research workers and students of all levels in climate science, oceanography and related fields.
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The observational basis
The equations of motion and some simpliﬁcations
Boundary layers on both sides of the tropical ocean surface
ENSO prediction and shortterm climate prediction
ENSOby proxy and ENSOin the tea leaves
Using ENSO information
adiabatic lapse rate amplitude annual cycle atmosphere and ocean atmosphere–ocean averaged barotropic Battisti boundary conditions boundary layer Cane changes circulation cold phases convection convergence coupled models cumulonimbus clouds deep cumulonimbus clouds deﬁne dynamics eastern Paciﬁc ECMWF eigenvalues El Niņo ensemble ENSO cycle entrainment equivalent depth ﬁeld Figure ﬁrst ﬂow ﬂuid forecast global gradient Hadley circulation heat ﬂux horizontal inﬂuence initial interannual ITCZ Kelvin signal Kelvin wave latitude lifting condensation level linear mass ﬂux mean meridional midlatitude mixed layer moisture motion Niņo nonlinear observations oscillations persistent precipitation phases of ENSO pressure proﬁle propagate radiation radiative reﬂection regions of persistent response Rossby waves Sarachik sensible heat shallow-water equations simulation solution speciﬁc SST anomalies surface winds temperature term thermal forcing thermocline tropical Paciﬁc tropopause upwelling variability Walker circulation warm phase western boundary wind stress ZC model Zebiak zonal