The Biological Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life
Twenty inorganic elements, mostly metal ions, are consistently found in living systems and are essential for living systems to function correctly. The aim of this text is to discuss, describe, and explain the functional relevance of those elements: the reasons for their selection; the processes of their uptake, transport and final localization in cells; the regulation of these processes; and the interactive network of their reactions that connects the in vivo inorganic elements to the environment and to the genome. The first seven chapters describe the physical, chemical, and biological principles of the involvement of the elements in cellular activity, stressing how inorganic and organic chemicals react differently together in different compartments. The next twelve chapters describe the uses of the individual essential inorganic elements and a section on the genetic control of each element is included. The final chapter discusses how the interaction of genes, proteins, small molecules, and inorganic elements plays an important role in evolution and the speciation of organisms. The second edition of 'The Biological Chemistry of The Elements' has been thoroughly revised in content and style. The main additions to the first edition concern the discussion of the links to the genome of the uptake and transfer of inorganic elements and the regulation of homeostasis, the functional co-operative activities of the elements, the interaction with the environment, and the evolution of usage. Recent structural and mechanistic knowledge of many biomolecules and organelles are also included. Like the higly praised first edition, this text will be the bible of bioinorganic chemistry.
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The principles of the uptake
Kinetic effects and control
Redox incorporation of anions
cation and anion
Special solution condititions in vesicles
Kinetic considerations of chemical
Energy in biological systems and hydrogen
Lewis acid catalysis and regulation
coupled redox reactions
remnants of early life?
Molybdenum tungsten vanadium
Proton migration coupled to redox reactions
The role of biological macromolecules
Summary of genetic control and regulation
The roles of individual elements
controls and triggers
The biochemistry of selenium
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3-sheet active amino acids anions aqueous atoms bacteria binding constants biochemistry biological systems bound calcium calmodulin carbon carriers catalysts cations cells centres changes channels Chapter 20 chemical chemistry chloroplasts clusters coenzymes compartments complex compounds concentration coordination copper copper proteins cross-linked cytochrome cytoplasm dioxygen donors electron transfer elements energy enzymes especially eukaryotes evolution example exchange extracellular Fe/S filaments flow fold free ion functions Further reading genes gradients groups haem haem proteins helices histidine hormones hydrolysis inorganic interaction involved ions iron kinases kinetic ligands lipids magnesium manganese membrane metabolism metal ions metallome mitochondria mobile molecules molybdenum nickel non-metals organelles organisms oxidase oxidation pathways phosphate phosphorylation polymers polysaccharides porphyrin production prokaryotes proton pumps reactions redox potential reductase role Section selectivity sequence sidechains stability structure substrate sulphide sulphur surface synthesis Table transcription factors transport triggering uptake vesicles zinc