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activity algorithms arms race autopoiesis basic behavior complex components concept conflict constraints contingency approach Contingency Theory contradictions cybernetics decision defined deterrence dialectics economic elements entropy environment ergonomics Ernst von Glasersfeld example formulation G-structures George Klir Glasersfeld goals human factor important innovation process interaction involved issues Klir knowledge Lapin leads to less logic methodological methods Mitroff models Moscow nature Nauka Publishers notion nuclear strategy nuclear weapons object ontological op.cit opxit organization organizational paradox parameters partial recursive functions participants philosophical possible principle procedure Rapoport Reckmeyer reconstruction family reconstruction hypotheses reconstruction problem recursive function refinement relations relationships require role Sadovsky scientific self-organizing social systems society Soviet Union specific spontaneous structure system subsystems systems analysis systems approach systems philosophy Systems Research systems theory systems thinking technological thinking tion Umpleby USSR variables VNIISI Wiley York Zeleny