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Electrical Properties of Materials
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active device amplifier amplitude amplitude modulation analysis approximation associated Assume atom bias biased break frequency breakdown capacitance carrier concentration cathode cause charge circuit shown collector current common-base component concepts conduction band conduction electrons constant controlled current flow current gain curve depletion region desired determine diffusion discussed doping effect electron energy emitter current equation Example factor feedback Fermi energy Fermi level Forbidden band forward-biased function germanium gives grid hole concentration ideal diode impurity increases incremental model kilohms linear model load line low-end magnitude maximum midband modulation negative resistance nonlinear obtained ohms operating point output voltage phase angle piecewise linear piecewise linear model PNP transistor positive problem pulse quantum resistor response result reverse-biased saturation current semiconductor material shown in Figure shows silicon small-signal solid stage switching techniques thermal transformer triode tube V-I characteristic vacuum valence band variation voltage gain volts zero