Optics demonstrations with the overhead projector

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Optical Society of America, Jun 15, 2000 - Education - 290 pages
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This is a hands-on working tool for classroom teachers, presenting dozens of demonstrations on different types of optical phenomena using low-cost materials that are readily available. The demonstrations can be adapted to many different levels. Copublished with OSA.

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Contents

pk5
The Overhead Projector
Scattering
An illumination detail
Pyramidal enclosure
9
Fresnel lens artifacts
10
Nonstandard Uses of the Projector
11
Accessing the lamp image
12
A polariscope Using the Projector p 19
6
Some techniques
7
Linear Polarization and Sheet Polarizer
8
Two polarizers
10
Three polarizers
11
i
12
Compound polarizeranalyzer combinations
13
Circular Polarization
14

Light table
13
Most perpendicular beam
14
Homemade Apparatus
15
Cardboards
17
Using color filters
18
Apparatus support stand
19
Purchased Apparatus Moire
20
Monochromatic Ray Optics 1 Monochromatic Ray Optics
1
Plane Parallel Plate
2
Plane parallel plate
3
Axial image shift 5 Axial image shift
4
Lateral image shift by a tilted plate
6
Doublethickness plate
7
Rotating transmission scanner
8
Prism
9
Prism monochromatic properties
10
Variation of deviation angle with orientation
11
Prism deviation and vertex angle 13 Prism deviation and material
12
Range of incidence angles
14
Image revolution without rotation
15
Variable angle prism
16
Miscellaneous
17
Wave patterns
18
Total internal reflection
19
TIR demonstrations
20
Retroreflectors
21
1140
22
Polychromatic Ray Optics
23
Grating p 7
31
Fresnel lens dispersion
32
Shadow moire
42
Scattering
47
Scattering by surfaces and index difference
48
Scattering by surfaces with parallel lines
49
Scattering by particles
50
Air molecule scattering
51
Rayleigh scattering and polarization
52
Rayleigh scattering
53
Polarized input light
54
Apparatus
55
Multiple Rayleigh scattering
56
3920
57
Grating pp
59
Fluorescence
60
Fluorescence of clear plastic
61
Change of wavelength
62
Light depletion
63
Different absorption wavelengths for different fluorescers
64
Absorption variation with wavelength
65
Polarization Polarization 9 Complicated colors
67
Interesting effects
68
Fluorescent liquid Monochromatic Rays p 19
69
50
71
Interference colors
73
Variation of color with angle
74
Complementarity of transmitted and reflected light
75
Polarization and color Polarization
76
Apparatus to observe reflected interference colors
77
40
79
Gratings
80
Transmission grating
81
Basic setup
82
Grating frame
83
Grating structure
84
Rotation about a normal to the grating Monochromatic Rays p 15
86
No change Polarization
88
Different periods
89
Grating under the lens Color p 6
92
Successive gratings
93
Complementary patterns
94
Special effects
95
Decomposition
96
40
97
Absorption spectroscope
99
Grating spectroscope Grating
100
1445
103
Subtractive color mixture 3 Colored objects and colored illumination
105
Additive color mixture
106
More additive color
107
30
109
Polarization Video 5830
1
Fluorescence p 3
3
Arrangement on an overhead projector
4
Circular polarizer
15
Circular polarizer nonideal behavior
16
Circular polarization and reflected light
17
Making circular polarizer
18
Circular polariscope Polarization p 37
20
Monochromatic Rays p 22
22
Birefringent sheet
23
Some birefringence techniques
24
Observing nonplanar objects
25
Stress birefringence
26
Stretched plastic
27
Mapping stress lines
28
Double refraction and double images
29
Birefringence interference colors
30
Optical Activity
31
Optical activity
32
Optical activity
33
Measuring the rotation
34
Varying syrup distance through which light passes
35
Variation in rotation with wavelength
36
Polarization with Reflection and Transmission
38
Polarization with reflection and transmission
40
Changed polarization of transmitted light
41
All the angles at once
42
Brewster angle
43
Pile of plates polarizer
44
Miscellaneous
45
Order of elements
46
180degree rotation periodicity
47
Flipping
48
Depolarization Scattering
49
Depolarization in transmission
50
Partial polarization
51
3D movie technique
52
Conoscopic arrangement
53
Wavelength analysis of polarization effects
54
1330
1
Diffusers for imaging Overhead Projector p 10
4
Basic Image Properties
5
Ideal imaging
6
Transverse magnification
7
Axial positions and magnifications
8
Handedness Overhead Projector p 7
9
Object and image rotation
10
1240
11
Resolution
12
Additional Optics
13
Optical activity and circular polarizers Polarization p 14
14
Lens sharing
15
Imaging an image and the field lens
16
Defocus and Depth
17
Defocus effects 20 Defocus and illumination Overhead Projector p 10
19
Nonround apertures
21
Some object types
22
Complementary objects
23
Periodic objects
24
Thick objects
25
Focus sensing
26
Triangulation
27
Aberrations
28
Aberrations
30
Aberration creation with ripply glass Monochromatic Rays p 18
32
Creating astigmatism
33
Astigmatism by reflection
34
Spherical aberration
35
Lateral color Polychromatic Rays p 10
37
Keystone distortion
39
Extreme distortion
40
Anamorphic
41
Topography
42
Some Types of Image Degradation
43
Imaging through turbulent media Monochromatic Rays p 18
46
Miscellaneous
47
Vignetting
49
Knifeedge test
50
Pinhole camera
51
Close facing projectors
52
Objects that must be vertical
53
Special arrangements
54
Projector as illuminator
55
Bibliography Author
57
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