Community Ecology of Neotropical Kingfishers, Volume 124
To determine the mechanisms for species-spacing in a group of closely related bird species--namely, five species of Neotropical Kingfishers--the author studied their feeding behavior and diet at three sites, two in Bolivia and one in Colombia. He found that changes in number of coexisting species were correlated with changes in abundance and size distribution of their prey, surface-dwelling fishes.
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Alcedinidae alcyon Amazon River amazona amazona and americana americana Arroyo Salsipuedes bill length Bolivia censuses Ceryle Characidae cichlids differences distance from shore dive entry point Ecology effective shore effective shoreline estimated feeding five five-species community five-species system floating vegetation mat foraging forest herons high-water season horizontal location hypothesis increased inda and aenea intensive sites interspecific competition Jacana kingfisher density kingfisher species Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Lake Tumi Chucua Large-billed Tern latitudinal low-water season MacArthur Mann-Whitney mean Neotropical niche breadth niche overlap observed Oecologia open habitats open water oxbow lake perch availability perch height perch type Peru Pied Kingfisher piscivorous birds prey items prey length Quebrada Tucuchira recessed pools Remsen Salsipuedes sample savannas seasonal change shaded habitat shaded perches simplex small fishes South America species diversity species richness stream study sites superciliaris surface fish density surface fish population Table three-species community TNO values torquata tropical Willard Yellow-billed Tern