Socratic Torah: Non-Jews in Rabbinic Intellectual Culture

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OUP USA, May 23, 2013 - Religion - 255 pages
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Jenny R. Labendz investigates rabbinic self-perception and self-fashioning within the non-Jewish social and intellectual world of antique Palestine, showing how the rabbis drew on Hellenistic and Roman concepts for Torah study and answering a fundamental question: was rabbinic participation in Greco-Roman society a begrudging concession or a principled choice? As Labendz demonstrates, Torah study was an intellectual arena in which rabbis were extremely unlikely to look beyond their private domain. Yet despite the highly internal and self-referential nature of rabbinic Torah study, some rabbis believed that the involvement of non-Jews in rabbinic intellectual culture enriched the rabbis' own learning and teaching. Labendz identifies a sub-genre of rabbinic texts that she terms "Socratic Torah," which portrays rabbis engaging in productive dialogue with non-Jews about biblical and rabbinic law and narrative. In these texts, rabbinic epistemology expands to include reliance not only upon Scripture and rabbinic tradition, but upon intuitions and life experiences common to Jews and non-Jews. While most scholarly readings of rabbinic dialogues with non-Jews have focused on the polemical, hostile, or anxiety-ridden nature of the interactions, Socratic Torah reveals that the presence of non-Jews was at times a welcome opportunity for the rabbis to think and speak differently about Torah. Labendz contextualizes her explication of Socratic Torah within rabbinic literature at large, including other passages and statements about non-Jews as well as general intellectual trends in rabbinic literature, and also within cognate literatures, including Plato's dialogues, Jewish texts of the Second Temple period, and the New Testament. While she focuses on non-Jews in the Palestinian Talmud and midrashim, the book includes chapters on the Babylonian Talmud and on the liminal figures of minim and Matrona. The passages that make up the sub-genre of Socratic Torah serve as the entryway for a much broader understanding of rabbinic literature and rabbinic intellectual culture.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
1 Platonic and Rabbinic Dialogues Compared
35
2 The Epistemological Implications of Socratic Torah
67
3 Rabbinic Boundaries Expanded
81
4 Socratic Torah Contested
101
5 Multiple Audiences Multiple Discourses
121
6 The Wisdom of NonJews and Its Relevance to Torah
146
Minim and Matrona
173
8 Rabbis and NonJews in the Babylonian Talmud
191
Conclusion
212
Bibliography
221
Index
237
Index of Primary Sources
247
Copyright

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About the author (2013)

Jenny R. Labendz is an Independent scholar. She obtained her PhD from the Jewish Theological Seminary in Talmud and Rabbinics, 2010.

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