Environmental Physiology of Animals

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John Wiley & Sons, Mar 12, 2009 - Science - 768 pages
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The new and updated edition of this accessible text provides a comprehensive overview of the comparative physiology of animals within an environmental context.
  • Includes two brand new chapters on Nerves and Muscles and the Endocrine System.
  • Discusses both comparative systems physiology and environmental physiology.
  • Analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic.
  • Examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology.
  • Applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation.
  • Provides modern molecular biology insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene.
  • Incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and rather more about the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates.

A companion site for this book with artwork for downloading is available at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/willmer/

 

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Contents

10 Hormones and Chemical Control Systems
342
102 Endocrine systems
347
103 Control of water and osmotic balance
360
104 Control of ion balance and pH
363
105 Control of development and growth
364
106 Control of metabolism temperature and color
370
107 Control of sex and reproduction
372
aggression territoriality and migration
381

24 Protein evolution
26
25 Physiological regulation of gene expression
28
26 Conclusions
35
3 The Problems of Size and Scale
36
33 Allometric scaling
37
34 Scaling of metabolic rate
40
35 Scaling of locomotion
42
is there a right size to be?
46
FURTHER READING
47
PART 2 Central Issues in Comparative Physiology
49
4 Water Ions and Osmotic Physiology
51
43 Passive movements of water and solutes
55
44 Nonpassive solute movements
61
45 Concentrations of cell contents
70
46 Overall regulation of cell contents
71
47 Conclusions
74
5 Animal Water Balance Osmoregulation and Excretion
76
52 Exchanges occurring at the outer body surface
80
53 Osmoregulation at external surfaces
84
54 Osmoregulatory organs and their excretory products
88
55 Water regulation via the gut
102
56 Regulation of respiratory water exchanges
103
57 Water loss in reproductive systems
105
58 Water gain
107
59 Costs and energetics of regulating water and ion balance
108
510 Roles of nervous systems and hormones
109
FURTHER READING
110
6 Metabolism and Energy Supply
112
63 Anaerobic metabolic pathways
115
64 Aerobic metabolism
119
65 Metabolic rates
126
66 Energy budgets
133
FURTHER READING
139
7 Respiration and Circulation
141
72 Uptake and loss of gases across respiratory surfaces
144
73 Ventilation systems to improve exchange rates
149
74 Circulatory systems
154
75 Delivering and transferring gases to the tissues
162
76 Coping with hypoxia and anoxia
169
77 Control of respiration
170
FURTHER READING
173
8 Temperature and its Effects
175
82 Biochemical effects of temperature
176
83 Physiological effects of temperature
183
84 Terminology and strategies in thermal biology
188
85 Thermal environments and thermal exchanges
192
86 Avoidance tolerance and acclimation in thermal biology
196
87 Regulating heat gain and keeping warm
202
88 Regulating heat loss and keeping cool
208
evasion systems in space or time
212
nerves and hormones
217
811 Evolution and advantages of varying thermal strategies
218
FURTHER READING
221
Nervous Systems and Muscles
223
93 Synaptic transmission
232
94 Nervous systems
247
95 Neural integration and higher neural processes
254
96 Neuronal development
261
mechanisms and principles
266
98 Specific senses and sense organs
268
MUSCLES
290
910 Muscle structure
291
911 Muscle contraction
298
912 Muscle mechanics
305
913 Muscle types and diversity
312
NERVES AND MUSCLES WORKING TOGETHER
318
915 Locomotion using muscles
325
916 Conclusions
340
1010 Conclusions
386
FURTHER READING
387
PART 3 Coping with the Environment
389
Introduction
391
11 Marine Life
393
112 Ionic and osmotic adaptation
396
113 Thermal adaptation
400
114 Respiratory adaptation
408
115 Reproductive and lifecycle adaptation
411
116 Depth problems buoyancy and locomotion
415
marine signaling
423
118 Feeding and being fed on
429
119 Anthropogenic problems
430
marine vertebrates
432
1111 Conclusions
442
12 Shorelines and Estuaries
444
122 Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
455
123 Thermal adaptation
466
124 Respiratory adaptation
471
125 Reproductive and lifecycle adaptation
475
126 Mechanical locomotory and sensory systems
476
127 Feeding and being fed on
480
128 Anthropogenic problems
481
129 Conclusions
483
FURTHER READING
485
13 Fresh Water
487
132 Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
495
133 Thermal adaptation
502
134 Respiratory adaptation
505
135 Reproductive and lifecycle adaptation
511
136 Mechanical locomotory and sensory adaptations
514
137 Feeding and being fed on
515
138 Anthropogenic problems
518
139 Conclusions
524
FURTHER READING
525
14 Special Aquatic Habitats
526
143 Osmotically peculiar habitats
529
144 Thermally extreme waters
535
FURTHER READING
539
15 Terrestrial Life
541
152 Ionic and osmotic adaptation and water balance
552
153 Thermal adaptation
565
154 Respiratory adaptation
581
155 Reproductive and lifecycle adaptation
586
156 Locomotion and mechanical adaptations
596
157 Sensory adaptations
599
158 Feeding and being fed upon
602
159 Anthropogenic problems
609
1510 Conclusions
617
FURTHER READING
618
16 Extreme Terrestrial Habitats
620
deserts
621
163 Very cold habitats
645
164 Highaltitude habitats
663
165 Aerial habitats
671
166 Conclusions
673
17 Parasitic Habitats
675
172 Parasite environments
677
173 Basic parasite physiology
680
174 Reproduction and transmission
688
175 Parasite sensory abilities
692
176 Parasite regulation of host physiology
694
hostparasite conflicts
696
178 Conclusions
704
FURTHER READING
705
References
706
Index
713
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About the author (2009)

Pat Willmer began her research career in neurobiology at Cambridge, progressively switching to broader interests in invertebrate physiology and the interactions of physiology, ecology, and behavior. Her current interests at St Andrews mainly focus on insect environmental physiology, and effects on insect–plant interactions.


Graham Stone began his research career in entomology at Oxford, progressively switching to broader aspects of the biology of insect–plant interactions. His current interests at Edinburgh mainly focus on pollination ecology (particularly of Acacia communities in Africa) and the biology of oak gallwasps.


Ian A. Johnston began his research career at Hull and Bristol. His research group at St Andrews is currently utilizing genomic, molecular, physiological, structural, and whole organism approaches to investigate muscle development and growth in teleost fish, with particular reference to temperature adaptation and the evolution of Antarctic and Arctic species.

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